ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Kesuvos 60
(a) We learned in the Beraisa that if the baby recognizes its mother, then
the father is obligated to pay his wife to feed the baby. Rav Shimi bar
Abaye rules like Rebbi Yochanan, who gives the age of recognition as fifty
days. Rav and Shmuel too, argue in this matter. According to Rav - the age
of recognition is three months; according to Shmuel, it is thirty days.
(b) Rami bar Yechezkel disagrees with the previous (his brother Rav
Yehudah's) version of Shmuel's opinion - because it is not feasible for a
baby to recognize his mother to that extent so soon.
(c) In his opinion - Shmuel does not give a fixed time for recognition; each
child must be examined independently.
(a) In keeping with Rami bar Yechezkel's version of Shmuel, to ascertain
whether the baby recognized his mother or not, to know whether the mother
was obligated to feed her baby or not - Shmuel instructed Rav Dimi bar Yosef
to line up a number of women for an identification parade, to see which
woman the baby would recognize.
(b) The baby did indeed recognize his mother, who tried to avert her eyes,
but too late. And Rav Dimi bar Yosef ordered her to take her son and feed
(c) A blind baby would recognize his mother - by smell and touch.
(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer, a baby who feeds from his mother after the
age of twenty-four months is compared to one who feeds from something that
the Torah terms abominable. According to Rebbi Yehoshua - he may continue to
feed even up to four or five years.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua will agree with Rebbi Eliezer - in the case of a baby who
stopped feeding after the age of twenty-four months.
(a) The Tana learns from the Pasuk "es ha'Gamal ki Ma'aleh Geirah *Hu*" -
'Hu' Tamei, ve'Ein Chalav Mehalchei Sh'tayim Tamei' (that the milk of a
woman is permitted).
(b) We would otherwise learn from a 'Kal va'Chomer' from the milk of a
non-Kasher animal which is forbidden even though its touch (during its
lifetime) does not render Tamei, that the milk of a woman, who does render
Tamei (when she is a Nidah) someone who touches her, should certainly be
(c) We reconcile this with what we just learned (that to feed from a woman
after twenty-four months or four or five years is like feeding from a
Sheketz) - by establishing that case when one feeds directly from the woman,
whereas the D'rashah "Hu" refers to milk that has already been extracted
(a) We would have thought that although the Tana precludes the milk of a
woman from the prohibition of the milk of non-Kasher animals, he will not
preclude that of blood - because whereas the milk of Kasher animals is
Kasher, the blood of *all animals* is forbidden.
(b) We (also) learn from "Hu" (see Tosfos DH 'Yachol'), or from "es Zeh Lo
Sochlu" at the beginning of the Pasuk - that the blood of a human-being is
(c) 've'Chilufa be'Dam' means - that (the exact reverse of milk) human blood
is only permitted as long as it has *not yet separated*, but that once it
*has*, it is prohibited (the exact reverse of milk). Consequently, blood on
a slice of bread is forbidden, whereas it is permitted to swallow blood that
is in one's mouth.
(d) Rav Yosef rules like Rebbi Yehoshua. We reconcile Rebbi Yehoshua's Shiur
of four or five years with another Beraisa, where Rebbi Yehoshua gives the
Shiur as when he carried his package on his shoulders - by establishing both
as being one and the same Shiur.
(a) Rav Yosef also rules like ...
1. ... Rebbi Merinus, who permit a Gonei'ach to feed from an animal on
Shabbos - (something that is normally forbidden because it is separating a
food from its source - 'Mefarek', which is a Toldah of Dash [threshing]),
because, being an unusual way of feeding, it is only Asur mi'de'Rabbanan,
and Chazal did not decree in the case of pain (see Tosfos DH 'Gonei'ach').
(b) Despite the fact that this would normally be considered a Chilul
Shabbos, he nevertheless permits it - because there too, one does not
usually fix a pipe with one's feet, and Chazal did not decree in the case of
an Isur de'Rabbanan, when there is a loss involved.
2. ... Nachum from France - who permitted squashing the hard weeds growing
on a pipe that was blocking its mouth in a way that caused the water to
flood the roof and seep into the house, in order to allow the water to drain
the water from the roof, provided he did so discreetly (see Tosfos DH
(a) After twenty-four months - the baby must have stopped feeding for at
least three days before Rebbi Yehoshua agrees that it is like feeding from a
(b) Some quote Rav Yehudah bar Chaviva Amar Shmuel as the source for this
statement - others say that Rav Yehudah bar Chaviva quoted a Beraisa in
front of Shmuel to that effect.
(c) According to Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, a woman is forbidden to get
engaged or married within twenty-four months after giving birth. According
to Rebbi Yehudah - it is eighteen months.
(a) Rebbi Yonasan ben Yosef connects the Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and
Rebbi Yehudah to the same Machlokes between Beis Shamai (Rebbi Meir) and
Beis Hillel (Rebbi Yehudah). When Raban Shimon ben Gamliel said 'Ani
Achri'a' - he meant that according to those who give the period of the
prohibition as twenty-four months, he would give it as twenty-one, and
according to those who give it as eighteen, he would say, fifteen.
(b) He reduced the Shiurim - on the basis that it takes three months for a
woman's milk to dry up.
(c) Ula rules like Rebbi Yehudah. Mar Ukva testified - that Rebbi Chanina
permitted him to marry a woman who had a baby of fifteen months.
(a) When Abaye's Aris (share-cropper) asked him for permission to get
engaged after fifteen months - he replied, on the grounds that the Halachah
is always like Rebbi Yehudah (when he argues with Rebbi Meir) and like Beis
Hillel (when they argue with Beis Shamai), and on the basis of Ula's ruling
and Mar Ukva's testimony that even marriage is permitted after fifteen
months, certainly betrothal.
(b) Abaye then went to Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef quoted him Rav and Shmuel - who
ruled that the woman is obligated to wait twenty-four months (like Rebbi
Meir) excluding the day on which the baby was born and the day of the
(c) Abaye then ran after his Aris three Parsah (some say, one) in the sand,
to rescind his erroneous ruling, but he did not succeed in catching him.
(d) Abaye says that the prohibition of ruling in the place of one's Rebbe is
not because it looks like Apikorsus - but because one lacks the necessary
Siyata di'Sh'maya (Divine assistance) to issue Halachic rulings. He said
this because he himself had known about Rav and Shmuel's ruling, yet when it
came to the crunch, he forgot it, because he was ruling in the vicinity of
his Rebbe, Rav Yosef.
(a) The Beraisa says that if a woman gave her son to a wet-nurse, or if she
weaned him or he died - she is permitted to marry immediately.
(b) When Rav Papa and Rav Huna B'rei de'Rav Yehoshua wanted to follow the
ruling of this Beraisa with regard to a woman who gave her son to a
wet-nurse - that old woman told them that Rav Nachman had forbidden her
personally to marry immediately under those very same circumstances.
(c) Rav Nachman nevertheless permitted a woman from the family of the Resh
Galusa to do so - because the reason that he took a strict line regarding
others (because the wet-nurse might retract, leaving the mother no option
but to feed the baby herself) does not apply to the Resh Galusa's family,
seeing as people were generally afraid to retract from any contract made
(a) Regarding a woman who, for some reason or other, was separated from her
husband, or whose husband was unable to have relations with her, or one who
was unable to have children, or with regard to getting married after her
husband died ...
1. ... Rebbi Meir says - that the prohibition of marrying for three months
remains in full force.
(b) Rav Nachman Amar Shmuel ruled like - Rebbi Meir in all his decrees.
2. ... Rebbi Yossi says - that she is permitted to get engaged or even
(c) When Rav Papi asked Rav Papa and Rav Huna B'rei de'Rav Yehoshua why they
tried to rule like the above Beraisa (permitting a woman who hired a
wet-nurse to marry immediately) in spite of this ruling - they replied that
they had simply forgotten about it.
(d) We conclude that if her baby died, the woman is permitted to marry
immediately, but not if she weaned him.
1. This is because we are afraid - that if weaning will permit her to marry,
then this will encourage her to wean the baby in order to remarry
immediately, but we are not afraid that a woman will kill her baby, even for
2. We do not rule like Mar bar Rav Ashi, in spite of the story of the woman
who actually strangled her baby in order to be able to remarry immediately -
because she was senile, and we cannot prove anything from senile people.
(a) Having taught us that a wet-nurse is forbidden to feed her own baby
during that period, the Tana nevertheless finds it necessary to add that she
is also not permitted to feed someone else's - because we might ascribed the
prohibition to feed her own simultaneously to the fact that, out of her love
for him, she will feed him even when she knows that she does not have excess
milk, whereas someone else's, she would only feed if she knew that she had
enough for both.
(b) Rav Sheishes explains that when the Tana says 'Paskah Kim'ah, Ocheles
Harbeh' - he means that even if they only fixed insufficient food to provide
enough milk for the baby, she must provide the rest out of her own pocket,
to ensure that the baby has enough to eat.
(c) She must take care with regard to her diet. Rav Kahana presents the list
of forbidden foods as hops, small fish and earth, Abaye adds pumpkin and
quince, Rav Papa, pumpkin and small dates. Rav Ashi adds a preserve
comprising bread, milk and salt. Some of these foods are not good for a
feeding woman - because they stop her milk supply, others, because they
cause the milk to go off.
(a) Intimacy in a mill results in children who suffer from epilepsy; on the
ground, in children with long necks. If one is intimate after ...
1. ... treading on the blood of a donkey - one can expect children whose
hair falls out or who suffer from boils.
(b) Regularly eating cress, results in children who have watery eyes; small
fish, children with darting eyes. Someone who regularly eats ...
2. ... regularly eating mustard - children who are constantly starving.
1. ... clay and who drinks beer - can expect ugly children.
(c) Eating eggs leads to children with big eyes; fish, to children with a
lot of Chein (charm), and wild celery, to beautiful children. Regularly
2. ... meat and drinks wine expect - healthy children.
1. ... coriander seeds - leads to fat children
(d) The daughter of Shavur Malka (king of Persia) was conceived after her
mother had eaten an esrog - as a result, they would bring her before her
father at the head of the spices.
2. ... an esrog - pleasant-smelling children.