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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Makos 24

MAKOS 21-24 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.



(a) Of the six hundred and thirteen Mitzvos Yisrael were given, according to Rav Simla'i - there are three hundred and sixty-five La'avin (corresponding to the days in a year, each of which announces 'Do a Mitzvah on me!'); and two hundred and forty-eight Asei'in (corresponding to the limbs of a person, each of which announces, 'Do a Mitzvah with me!').

(b) The hint in the Torah that there are six hundred and thirteen Mitzvos - lies in the Pasuk in ve'Zos ha'Berachah ("Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe ... "), since the numerical value of "Torah" is six hundred and eleven, plus the two Mitzvos ('Anochi' and 'Lo Yiheyeh Lecha') which we heard from Hashem Himself, add up to six hundred and thirteen.

(c) David Hamelech brought it down to - eleven crucial Mitzvos (see Aruch la'Ner).

(d) "Holech Tamim" (which means 'to follow Hashem without any doubts') pertains to Avraham (about whom the Torah writes "His'halech Lefanai Veheyei Tamim", and Po'el Tzedek to the deeds of Aba Chilkiyah (as related in Ta'anis). When Rebbi Simla'i says that ...

1. ... "ve'Dover Emes bi'Levavo" refers to Rav Safra, - he is referring to the episode where the latter failed to respond to an offer for a certain object that he wished to sell, due to the fact that he was reciting the Sh'ma. He refused to accept a second, higher offer for the object made by the would-be purchaser, who attributed Rav Safra's silence to his rejection of his first offer, because in fact, in his heart he had accepted the first offer.
2. ... "Lo Ragal al Leshono" refers to Ya'akov Avinu - he is referring to the episode where the latter initially refused to go in to his father for the B'rachos, because it would entail lying.
(e) He eventually condescended to go in to his father and lie - only because his mother forced him to, and even her orders were not her own but those of the Shechinah.
(a) "Lo Asah le'Re'eihu Ra'ah" refers to not encroaching on one's fellow-Jew's business. "ve'Cherpah Lo Nasa al Kerovo" - to being nice to one's relatives (see Agados Maharsha).

(b) "Nivzeh be'Einav Nim'as" refers to Chizkiyahu Hamelech, and "Yir'ei Hashem Yechabed" to Yehoshafat Hamelech.

1. After his father's Achaz died, Chizkiyahu Hamelech - dragged his bones around on a bed of ropes. "Nivzeh be'Einav Nim'as" therefore means that he despised whoever was considered despicable in the Eyes of Hashem (even if it was his own father [see also Agados Maharsha]).
2. Whenever Yehoshafat would see a Talmid-Chacham - he would get up from his throne, hug him and kiss him and address him as 'Rebbi Rebbi, Mari Mari'.
(c) "Nishba Lehara ve'Lo Yamir" refers to Rebbi Yochanan, who would make a Shevu'ah - to fast until he arrived home (in order to avoid benefiting from the Nasi [see Agados Maharsha])

(d) "Kaspo Lo Nasan be'Neshech" comes to include - even taking Ribis from a Nochri (which is basically permitted).

(a) The last of the eleven things is "ve'Shochad al Naki Lo Lakach". "al Naki" means - even bribery that is basically permitted to take, like the case of ...

(b) ... Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi - who refused to judge his share-cropper, because he brought him fruit that was his anyway, a day or two earlier (only because he had come to town early in order to be judged).

(c) The Pasuk concludes "Oseh Eileh Lo Yimot", evoking tears on the part of Raban Gamliel - who understood the Pasuk to mean that only someone who adheres to all eleven principles will remain unmoved.

(d) His colleagues reassured him however, that since the Pasuk does not write "Oseh Kol Eileh", it means that even one of them will already cause one not to be moved. And they learn it - from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Al Tetam'u be'Chol Eileh" (which certainly does not mean that it is only someone who transgresses all the Arayos who defiles himself [even though the Pasuk does use the Lashon "Kol", as we explained in Sanhedrin]).

(a) Yeshayah brought the number of Mitzvos down further, to six main principles. "Holech Tzedakos" pertains once again, to Avraham Avinu, by whom the Torah writes 'that Hashem chose him because he would command his children to go in the ways of Hashem, to do "Tzedakah u'Mishpat".

(b) "ve'Dover Mesharim" refers - to someone who refrains from shaming his fellow-Jew in public.

(c) "No'er Kapav mi'Temoch be'Shochad", to Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi (as we explained earlier), and "Mo'es be'Betza Ma'ashakos" (which is written even before it) pertains to Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha, who was a Kohen - and who refused to accept the Reishis ha'Gez (the first of the shearings) that someone who came to him to be judged wanted to give him, because he did not want to 'rob' the Kohen who normally received it, of his 'dues'.

(a) "Otem Ozno mi'Shemo'a Damim" pertains to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, whereas Rebbi Chiya bar Aba explains "ve'Otzem Einav me'Re'os be'Ra". "Otem Ozno mi'Shemo'a Damim" refers to the incident (in 'ha'Socher es ha'Po'alim') - where, after his death, a worm came out of Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon's ear, because he once overheard a Tamid-Chacham being put to shame, and remained silent (which goes to show how meticulous he normally was in this regard).

(b) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba explains "ve'Otzem Einav me'Re'os be'Ra" - by someone who shuts his eyes when he passes a spot where women are washing their clothes in the river (which inevitably causes them to uncover parts of their bodies that are generally covered).

(c) The Navi says about all of these - ''Hu Meromim Yishkon".

(a) Michah brought the brunt of the Mitzvos down to three, all contained in the Pasuk "Higid Lecha Adam Mah Tov u'Mah Hashem Doresh me'Imach ... ". By "Ki-im Asos Mishpat ve'Ahavas Chesed", he means - Din and Gemilus Chasadim.

(b) We connect "Vehatzne'a Leches im Elokecha" with the Mitzvos of Hotza'as ha'Meis and Hachnasas Kalah - by both of which the Pasuk which writes the word "Leches" ("Tov Leches el Beis Aveil me'Leches el Beis Mishteh").

(c) And we would then Darshen a 'Kal va'Chomer' with regard to other Mitzvos (such as Tzadakah) - which, from the very outset, one performs more discreetly, than Hotza'as ha'Meis and Hachnasas Kalah.

(d) Yeshayah (for the second time) based the Torah on - Dinim and Gemilus Chasadim.

(a) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak objects to the suggestion that Michah brought down the number of basic Mitzvos to one, when he said "Ko Amar Hashem le'Veis Yisrael, Dirshuni Vichyu" - on the grounds that "Dirshuni Vichyu" might well mean seek Hashem by learning the entire Torah.

(b) The Nevi'im found it necessary to minimize the principles on which the Torah is based - as the generations became spiritually weaker.

(c) Chavakuk finally based the entire Torah on the Mitzvah - of Emunah, when he said "ve'Tzadik be'Emunaso Yichyeh".

(a) Rebbi Yossi bar Chanina said about the four harsh decrees that Moshe issued against K'lal Yisrael - that four Nevi'im negated them (though it is difficult to understand how it is possible to negate the words of Moshe, for which one is normally Chayav Misah).

(b) When Moshe blessed Yisrael "Vayishkon Yisrael Badad Ein Ya'akov" - he meant that Yisrael would only be unique among the nations only provided they were on the level of Ya'akov.

(c) Amos say about that - "Chadal Na, Mi Yakum Ya'akov" ('Enough of that! Who can be like Ya'akov'?)

(d) We know that Hashem agreed with him - because the Pasuk writes there "Nicham Hashem al Zos".

(a) Moshe had said - that Yisrael will find no respite among the nations ("u'va'Goyim ha'Heim *Lo Sargi'a*"), which Yirmiyah negated when he said "Am Seridei Charev, Haloch *Lehargi'o* Yisrael"?

(b) Moshe said in Ki Sisa "Poked Avon Avos al Banim" (provided the sons continue to go in the footsteps of the fathers).

(c) To counter it, Yechezkel said - "ha'Nefesh ha'Chota'as Hi Tamus".

(d) The harsh decree that Yeshayah negated when he said "Vehayah ba'Yom ha'Hu Yitaka be'Shofar Gadol" - was "Va'avadtem ba'Goyim" (in Bechukosai), in which there will be no-one to redeem).

(a) Rav was afraid of the Pasuk "Va'avadtem ba'Goyim". Rav Papa therefore suggested - that the Pasuk was speaking about a lost article which the owner is searching for (and not one that he has given up on [in which case, the article stands to be found, and there is nothing to be afraid of]). Indeed, the Pasuk in Tehilim writes "Ta'isi ke'Seh Oved, Bakesh Avdecha" ('I erred like a lost sheep, seek your servant').

(b) And with regard to the suggestion that maybe it was the continuation of the Pasuk of which Rav was afraid "ve'Achlah Osam Eretz Oyveichem" (implying that Yisrael will be destroyed) Mar Zutra commented - that even then, there was nothing to be afraid of, because perhaps, the Pasuk means like one eats cucumbers and pumpkins, of which one eats part and leaves part.




1. ... Raban Gamliel, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah and Rebbi Yehoshua began to weep when they heard sounds of rejoicing in Rome - because, they said, 'If those heathens, who prostrate themselves before something that is worthless, and sacrifice to wood and stones, dwell in safety and tranquillity, then when the House that serves as the footstool of our G-d, lies smoldering, how can we not cry'?
2. ... Rebbi Akiva laughed - for the very same reason. Because if those who transgress Hashem's will have it so good, imagine what is in store for those who perform Hashem's will.
(b) On another occasion, when the same four Tana'im reached Har ha'Tzofim, they rent their garments - because from there, they were able to see the ruins of the Beis-Hamikdash.

(c) The same three Tana'im wept once again when they reached the Har ha'Bayis - because they saw a fox emerge from the Kodesh Kodshim (the place about which it is written "ve'ha'Zar ha'Karev Yumas").

(d) Again Rebbi Akiva began to laugh, but this time because of the Pasuk "Ve'a'idah Li Eidim Ne'emanim es Uri'ah ha'Kohen ve'es Zecharyah ben Berechyah". The problem with the juxtaposition of these two Nevi'im is - the fact that the former lived in the time of the first Beis-Hamikdash, whereas the latter lived in the time of the second (see also Tosfos).

(a) The prophesy of ...
1. ... Uri'ah ha'Kohen (in Michah) refers to - the plowing of Yerushalayim into a field.
2. ... Zecharyah ben Berechyah - to the fact that old men and women will yet sit in the streets of Yerushalayim.
(b) What therefore caused Rebbi Akiva to laugh was - the fact having seen the fulfillment of the first prophecy (which denotes total destruction, into a place where foxes go [Eitz Yosef]. See also Agados Maharsha).

(c) The other Tana'im reacted to Rebbi Akiva's explanation with the words - 'Akiva Nichamtanu Akiva Nichamtanu!'

***** Hadran Alach Eilu Hein ha'Lokin, u'Selika Lah Maseches Makos *****

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