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|The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number
assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes
Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, a copy of which is available through our site or
by Email request, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos
Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at
the beginning of Midos).
1) [line 1] HA'MUDAR HANA'AH ME'CHAVERO - a person (Reuven) whose friend
(Shimon) made a vow that he (Reuven) may not derive any benefit from his
2) [line 2] DERISAS HA'REGEL - setting foot into his house
3) [line 6] VITUR - to forego [the use of things that a person would normally
let another person use without asking permission]
4) [line 7] NEDARIM/NEDAVOS
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary
sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which
are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim
(parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos
(flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei *Alai* Olah"), without
singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets
aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or
dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "*This* animal is an
Olah" ("Harei *Zo* Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets
lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.
5) [line 19] K'MAN D'TA'IN A'KASFEI DAMI - it is as if he is carrying it on
6) [line 20] ZAV
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos
84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days,
is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white
of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the
consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge
resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine
whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to
an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too
much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to
start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh
day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring *during the day*. At nightfall
he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he
emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three
consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to
enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two
Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah
and one as a Chatas.
7) [line 21] MISHKAV U'MOSHAV
(a) A Zav (see previous entry), as well as a Zavah, Nidah or Yoledes, can
cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they
touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is
treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the *Tachton*,
of a Zav). An object (other than earthenware objects, or Klei Cheres) that is
under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying,
sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a
Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the
clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils)
that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a
Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon*
of a Zav.
8) [line 1] SHOMERES YOM KENEGED YOM (ZAVAH)
(a) The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah."
If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive
days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may
immerse in a Mikvah *during the day* to become Tehorah. She may even immerse
on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her
Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood
afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she
must *watch* the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11
days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become
Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she
has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she
immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of
the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a
Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim.
The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one
offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
9) [line 12] METZORA MUSGAR/METZORA MUCHLAT
(a) When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must
ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega
Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks,
making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what
changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen *confirms* the Tum'ah of
the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen
pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his
Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b) The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora
are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of
clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color
of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es,
which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c) For a description of the purification process of a Metzora, see below,
10) [line 13] PERI'AH/PERIMAH
A Metzora, like a mourner, must let his hair grow (Peri'ah) and make a tear
(Perimah) of at least a Tefach in the upper part of his clothes as is learned
from the verse in Vayikra (13:45).
11) [line 14] TIGLACHAS V'TZIPORIM (TAHARAS METZORA)
(a) On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two
kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a
hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a
clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into
the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on
the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are
Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent
off to the fields.
(b) The Metzora next washes his clothes, shaves all places on his body that
have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He
is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but
marital relations are forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, then
once more washes his clothes, shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor
but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 90:11).
(c) On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his
Taharah. The animals Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of
the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep
is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he
is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two
common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as
(d) The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part
of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves the live Korban Asham
with the Log of oil resting upon it (Tenufah). After the Asham is
slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the
middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb
and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at
the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the
gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man
who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38). Although all of the
other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only
had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the
Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while
standing under the awning of the gate.
(e) After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in
his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He
must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body
of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The
remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The
rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the
Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the
Kodshei Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)
12) [line 18] HESET
A Zav (see above, entry #6), Zavah (see above, entry #8), Nidah (see
Background to Rosh ha'Shanah 10:1) or Yoledes, can cause Tum'ah through
Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or object
that is Tahor, whether they touch them or not. In all other types of Tum'ah
besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves (without touching)
a person or object that is Tahor does *not* Metamei the person or object.
Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects, including earthenware utensils,
in this way.
13) [line 19] MI'LETAMEI B'VI'AH
(a) When a person is a Metzora, he is Metamei the objects in the house that
he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei
all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into
another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.
(b) Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora
in it, there are two Pesukim:
* "veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev" (Vayikra
(c) From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into
the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not
become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the
house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat
bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he
is wearing become Tamei.
* "veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es
Begadav" (ibid. 14:47)
(d) The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the
Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a
Metzora in it.
||OHEL OF A MES
||A person becomes Tamei even if only
a bit of his body enters
| A person becomes Tamei only
if most of his body enters
||Even when entering backwards, a
person becomes Tamei when only a
bit of his body enters
|When entering backwards, a
person becomes Tamei only
when he enters entirely
||A Mechitzah (partition) only prevents
the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the
|A Mechitzah of ten Tefachim
is enough to prevent the
spread of Tum'ah
||The house or room is Tamei whether
the Mes is placed there or is just
|The house or room is Metamei
only if the Metzora stops
there, and is not just
14) [line 20] SHE'TZARA'ATO TELUYUAH V'GUFO - that his Tzara'as is dependant
upon a physical change on his body -- see Insights
15) [line 31] L'TOFRAN B'GIDIN - to require them to be sewn only with sinews
16a) [line 33] KESAV IVRI - the ancient Hebrew script which is not in use
b) [last line] ASHURIS - in "Assyrian" script (the script of our Sifrei