POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Megilah 17
MEGILAH 16, 17, 18, and 19 (1st day of Sukos) sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE CALCULATION OF YAKOV'S YEARS
(a) The Torah records Yishmael's years to reveal about
2) MISHNAH: RULES OF READING THE MEGILAH
1. When Yakov left home, "Esav went to Yishmael ... and
took Basmas, Nevayos' sister as a wife" - Yishmael
engaged her to Esav, and soon died, so Nevayos
finalized the marriage.
(b) Yakov worked for Lavan for 14 years before Yosef was
2. Yishmael died at 137; Yitzchak was 14 years younger.
3. Yakov was born when Yitzchak was 60; thus, he was 63
when he left home.
(c) Yosef was 30 when he came before Paro.
(d) Question: Yakov came to Paro 9 years later, and said he
was 130 - our calculation say that he was 116!
(e) Answer: He learned in seclusion by Ever for 14 years.
(f) (Beraisa): Yosef was separated from Yakov for 22 years,
as a punishment for 22 years away from home.
(g) Question: Yakov was only by Lavan for 20 years!
(h) Answer: He tarried 2 years returning home.
(a) One does not fulfill the Mitzvah of reading the Megilah
by reading it:
3) GEMARA: THINGS WHICH MUST BE READ IN ORDER
1. Out of order
(b) One may read in La'az (a foreign language) to a Lo'ez
(one who speaks La'az).
2. By heart
3. In Aramaic translation, or any other language.
(c) The following did fulfill the Mitzvah:
1. A Lo'ez that heard Ashuris (Hebrew).
(d) One who was writing, expounding or proofreading a Megilah
only fulfilled the Mitzvah if he intended.
2. One who paused or dozed in the middle of reading.
(e) One only fulfills the Mitzvah if the Megilah is written
Ashuris, with ink, on parchment.
(a) Question: What is the source that the Megilah must be
read in order?
(b) Answer (Rava): "As their writings and as their times" -
just as their times (for reading) cannot be out of order,
so the writing may not be out of order.
(c) Question: The verse is talking about making (A meal and
Yom Tov), not about writing the Megilah!
(d) Retraction: Rather, he learns from "Are remembered and
made", we equate the remembrance (writing the Megilah)
with the making, which cannot be out of order.
(e) (Beraisa): Hallel, Krias Shma and prayer must also be
read in order.
(f) Question: What is the source for Hallel?
1. Answer#1 (Rabah): "From the east (rising) of the sun
until its setting (praised is Hashem's name)".
(g) Question: What is the source for Krias Shma?
2. Answer#2 (Rav Yosef): "This is the day" (a day
always passes in order).
3. Answer#3 (Rav Avya): "Hashem's name should be
blessed" (the blessing should resemble the name,
i.e. be in order).
4. Answer#4 (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): "From now and
(h) Answer (Beraisa): Rebbi says that Krias Shma may only be
read in Hebrew; Chachamim permit all languages.
4) ORDER OF THE 18 BLESSINGS OF PRAYER
1. Rebbi learns from "They will be" - as they are.
2. Chachamim learn from "Hear" - in every language you
i. Rebbi uses the verse "Hear" to teach that one
should read it audibly, so he can hear himself.
3. Chachamim do not expound "They will be" as Rebbi -
they say it teaches that one must read in order!
ii. Chachamim hold that one fulfills the Mitzvah
even if he didn't read audibly.
4. Rebbi learns from an extra letter Hei in
"ha'Devarim" that one must read in order.
5. Chachamim say that "ha'Devarim" is grammatically
proper; the "Hei" is not to be expounded.
6. Suggestion: Rebbi must say that the Torah was given
to be read in all languages; if it was only given to
be read in Hebrew, we would not need a special
teaching by Krias Shma!
7. Rejection: This is no proof - we need a teaching, so
we will not learn as Chachamim!
(a) Question: What is the source that prayer must be read in
(b) Answer#1 (Beraisa): Shimon ha'Kepuli ordered the 18
blessings in Yavne (when the Sanhedrin sat there).
(c) Answer#2 (R. Yochanan): 120 sages, included some
prophets, enacted 18 blessings in order.
(d) (Beraisa): The order of the blessings is as follows, and
for the coming reasons:
1. (Patriarchs) - "Give to Hashem, children of the
2. (Gevura (strength)): "Give to Hashem honor and
3. (Holiness): "Give to Hashem ... the honor of
4. (Understanding): "The Holy one of Yakov ... and
those of a straying spirit will have understanding".
5. (Repentance): "His heart will understand, and he
will repent and be cured."
i. Question: If so, the blessing for healing
should follow repentance!
6. (Forgiveness): Learned from the previous verse.
ii. Answer: It says, "He will repent ... Hashem
greatly forgives" (so forgiveness follows
i. Question: Why does this outweigh the verse "he
will repent and be cured"?
7. (Redemption) (Rava): The future redemption will be
in the 7th year (of the Shmita cycle), so redemption
was fixed as the 7th blessing.
ii. Answer: A 3rd verse teaches "He forgives ... he
cures and redeems", forgiveness precedes
healing and redemption.
iii. Question: In any case, we have a contradiction
iv. Answer: "He will repent and be cured" refers to
forgiveness, not healing sickness.
i. Question: But it was taught, in the 7th year
will be wars, and the next year the Mashiach
from the house of David will come!
8. (Healing) (R. Acha): Circumcision, which is on the
8th day, needs, healing, therefore it was fixed as
the 8th blessing.
ii. Answer: The war is the start of the redemption.
9. (Prosperity) (R. Aleksandri): This blessing opposes
those that inflate the price of grain; the 9th Psalm
speaks of breaking the arm of such people.
10. (Gathering of exiles): This follows prosperity, as
it says, "Mountains of Yisrael, cast forth your
branches and bear fruit, for my nation Yisrael, for
they will come soon."
11. (Judgment): This follows gathering of exiles, as it
says, "I will return my hand and return your judges"
12. (Deniers and intentional sinners): After the wicked
are judged, both of these will pass from the world.
(This blessing was added at Yavne, making the total
13. (Tzadikim): When the sinners are finished, the
tzadikim are elevated. Converts are included,
because the Torah linked them.
14. (Yerushalayim): The tzadikim will be elevated in
15. (Kingship of Dovid): This follows the rebuilding of