POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Megilah 19
MEGILAH 16, 17, 18, and 19 (1st day of Sukos) sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) WITH WHAT WE MAY WRITE A MEGILAH
(a) 'Kankantom' is a paint used for shoes (and is invalid).
2) ONE WHO IS AWAY ON PURIM
(b) 'Diftara' is a hide which has been salted and soaked, but
not treated with gallnuts (it is invalid).
(c) 'Niyar' is herbs which were glued together.
(d) (Mishnah): It must be written Ashuris.
1. This is learned from "As their writing".
(e) (Mishnah): It must be written in a Sefer, in ink.
1. This is learned from a Gezerah Shaveh from Yirmiyahu.
(a) (Mishnah): An open city dweller who went to a walled
city, or vice-versa: if he will return to his place, he
reads as in his place; if not, he reads where he is;
3) HOW MUCH OF THE MEGILAH MUST BE READ
(b) R. Meir: to fulfill the Mitzvah, one must read the entire
(c) R. Yehuda: From "A Jewish man"
(d) R. Yosi: From "After these things"
(e) (Gemara - Rava): 'If he will return' - before dawn of the
14th; if not, he reads with them (where he is).
1. We learn this from the redundancy "the open Jews, that
dwell in the open cities" - an open city dweller for
one day is called an open city dweller.
(f) (Rava): A villager that went to a city reads with them,
whether or not he will return.
2. By logic, we also say that a walled city dweller for
one day is called a walled city dweller.
1. The reason is, he really should read with the city -
Chachamim were lenient, because they supply food and
water to the cities; if he is in the city, the
leniency was not given.
(g) Question (Abaye - Beraisa): A walled city dweller that
went to an open city in any case reads as his place.
1. Question: The Mishnah says, it depends if he will
(h) Answer: The Beraisa must be corrected in any case -
correct it to say, he reads with them!
2. Answer: Rather, we must correct the Beraisa to say, a
villager that went... . This contradicts Rava!
(a) (Beraisa -R. Shimon Bar Yochai): From "That night".
(b) (R. Yochanan): He and the Tana'im of the Mishnah all
learned from the same verse - "All the power".
1. R. Meir said we must read it all - the power of
(c) (Rav Huna): They all learned from "What they saw on this
... and what happened to them".
2. R. Yehuda - from "a Jewish man" - the power of
3. R. Yosi - from "After these things" - the power of
4. R. Shimon Bar Yochai - from "that night" - the power
of the miracle.
1. We must read all of it - what Achashverosh saw, to use
the vessels of the Temple; on this that we were not
redeemed after 70 years; what happened to them - he
(d) (R. Chelbo): the law is, one must read the entire
Megilah! And even the dissenting opinions agree that the
entire Megilah must be written.
2. From "a Jewish man" - what Mordechai saw, to provoke
Haman; on this - he made himself an idolatry; and
what happened to them - a miracle!
3. From "After these things" - what Haman saw, that he
envied all the Jews; on this - that Mordechai
wouldn't bow to him; what happened to them - he and
his sons were hung.
4. From "that night" - what Achashverosh saw to bring the
chronicles; on this - that Esther invited Haman with
him; what happened to them - a miracle.
(e) (R. Chelbo): The Megilah is called a Sefer and a letter.
1. 'Sefer' teaches us that if it was sewn with flax, it
(f) (Rav Yehuda): One who reads a Megilah written amidst
Kesuvim does not fulfill the Mitzvah.
2. 'Letter' teaches us that 3 stitches of a sinew
i. (Rav Nachman): The stitches must be evenly
1. (Rava): But if the Megilah was larger or smaller than
the other parchments, there is no problem.
2. Rav Yehuda once rebuked Levi Bar Shmuel for reading
in a Megilah written amidst Kesuvim.
(g) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): (Rav Yehuda): One who reads a Megilah
written amidst Kesuvim does not fulfill the Mitzvah.
4) WHO MAY READ THE MEGILAH
1. He hit on his head - this only applies when a
(h) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): We have a tradition from Moshe, one
should not entirely sew together the parchments of a
1. He hit on his head - one need only leave over so it
should not tear.
(i) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): Had there been a crack in the cave
where Moshe and Eliyahu were when Hashem's glory passed
over, they could not have survived the light - "Man
cannot see me and live".
(j) (R. Chiya Bar Aba): "As everything that Hashem spoke with
you in the mountain" - Hashem showed Moshe all the
expoundings of the Torah, the Mishnah, and what the Sages
will add - namely, reading the Megilah.
(a) (Mishnah): All may read the Megilah, except for a deaf
person, crazy person or child; R. Yehuda permits a child.
(b) (Gemara - Question): Who is the Tana of our Mishnah, that
one who hears from a deaf person did not fulfill the
(c) Answer (Rav Masneh): R. Yosi.
1. (Mishnah): One who reads Krias Shma inaudibly to his
own ears was Yotzai (fulfilled the Mitzvah); R. Yosi
says he was not Yotzai.
(d) Question: Perhaps our Mishnah is R. Yehuda, and the deaf
person may not read L'chatchilah (to begin with), but
B'diavad (if he did so), one is Yotzai!
(e) Answer#1: A deaf person is taught together with a crazy
person and child, so we see that their law is the same -
even B'diavad, one is not Yotzai.
(f) Question: Perhaps the laws are not the same!
(g) Answer#2: Since R. Yehuda taught the end of the Mishnah,
he did not teach the beginning.
(h) Question: Perhaps the whole Mishnah is R. Yehuda!
(i) Answer: This cannot be - the beginning says a child may
not read, the end says that he may!
(j) Objection: Perhaps the beginning talks of a child below
the age of Chinuch (training in Mitzvahs), and the end
talks of a child that has reached Chinuch!
(k) Question on the Objector: How can you say that R. Yehuda
says that B'diavad, one is Yotzai if he read inaudibly?
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehuda Brei d'R. Shimon Ben Pazi): A
deaf person that can speak but not hear may tithe
L'chatchilah (even though he cannot hear his
(l) Counter-question: You say that R. Yehuda permits
L'chatchilah - but a Beraisa teaches, one should not
bless after a meal in his heart; if he did, he was
2. You cannot say he holds as R. Yehuda - R. Yehuda did
not permit L'chatchilah! It is not as R. Yosi - he
says, even B'diavad one is not Yotzai!
1. This cannot be R. Yehuda - he permits L'chatchilah!
2. It cannot be R. Yosi - he says, even B'diavad, he is