(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Megilah 4

MEGILAH 2-5 (Elul 27-Rosh Hashanah 5760) - have been dedicated by Dr. Jack and Sarah Dimenstein of Zurich Switzerland. May they be blessed with a year of health and prosperity, physical and spiritual!



(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said that Lud, Ono and Gei ha'Charashim were walled cities in the time of Yehoshua bin Nun. They were cities - that belonged to the tribe of Binyamin.

(b) Despite the fact that Lud and Ono are already mentioned in the Mishnah in Erchin, he needs to tell us this - because the walls, having been rebuilt a number of times, looked new, and people would have difficulty in believing it.

(c) The walls of these cities were built by Yehoshua bin Nun, but were destroyed during the civil war with Binyamin (in the time of Pilegesh be'Giv'ah). Elpa'el rebuilt them, and when they later fell (from weakness) - Asa rebuilt them again. We prove from the Pasuk in Divrei Hayamim (regarding Asa) "va'Yomer li'Yehudah, Nivneh es *he'Arim ha'Eileh*" - that the cities must have been standing already, and Asa only rebuilt them.

(d) Even though the above cities belonged to *Binyamin*, Asa, King of *Yehudah*, rebuilt them - because the kings of Yehudah reigned over Binyamin, too.

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi furthermore rules that women too, are obligated to read the Megilah (in spite of the fact that it is a time-related Mitzvah) - because they too, were included in the miracle (either because they, like the men, were destined to be killed by the Persians, or because of the major role that Esther played in the story).

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi ruled that when Purim falls on Shabbos - She'eilos concerning Purim take strict priority and the Rav Darshens about Purim then.

(c) Moshe Rabeinu instituted exactly the same thing regarding Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos.

(d) In spite of Moshe's ruling (which obviously extends to all minor Yamim- Tovim as well), Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi nevertheless found it necessary to issue *his* - because we would otherwise have thought that Chazal would incorporate a prohibition of even discussing Purim on Shabbos in the decree of not reading the Megilah on Shabbos, for fear that one may come to carry (as Rabah taught us).

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi learned from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Elokai Ekra Yomam ve'Lo Sa'aneh, ve'Laylah ve'Lo Dumi'ah Li" - the obligation to read the Megilah by night and to repeat it by day.

(b) They initially interpreted *'u'le'Shanosah* ba'Yom' - to mean that one should learn the written Torah by night, and the oral Torah (from the Lashon 'Mishnah') by day.

(c) We might learn the same thing - from the Pasuk "Lema'an *Yezamercha* Chavod *ve'Lo Yidom* ... ".




(a) According to Rebbi Chanina's initial statement, the Chachamim permitted the villagers to read the Megilah early, so that they should be free on Purim to provide the people in the cities with water and food (for the Purim Se'udah). If this Takanah is indeed for the benefit of the people of the city, the Mishnah says that when the fourteenth falls on ...
1. ... Monday, they read the Megilah then - because the only alternative would be to read it on the previous Thursday, which is the *tenth* of Adar, and as we learned above, the earliest that the Megilah can ever be read is the *eleventh*.
2. ... Thursday, they read the Megilah then - because advancing it would entail reading it on the previous 'Yom ha'Kenisah' (the Monday before), and we never move the reading from one Yom ha'Kenisah to another (though it is unclear as to why not).
(b) Rebbi Chanina's initial statement is disproved however, by Rebbi Yehudah, who says in a Mishnah later that, where it is not customary for the villagers to go into the towns, they must read the Megilah on the fourteenth (implying that the concession is for *their own* benefit). We therefore amend Rebbi Chanina's statement to read - that the Chachamim permitted the villagers to read the Megilah early *because* (not 'in order' that) they provide the people in the cities with water and food.
5) Our Mishnah began by listing the five possible dates on which the Megilah can be read. When going into detail, the Tana switches to the days of the week - because the way he explains them, the dates move progressively backwards (from the thirteenth, to the twelfth to the eleventh), which would make it extremely difficult to remember. Therefore, he prefers to switch to the days of the week, and move progressively forwards.


(a) According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, when Purim (the fourteenth of Adar) falls on Friday, the townspeople read the Megilah together with the villagers on Thursday - According to Rebbi, they read it on Friday.

(b) Both Tana'im derive their respective opinions from the Pasuk "be'Chol Shanah ve'Shanah".

1. The Tana Kama derives his opinion from there - because, he explains, it is like every year, when the townspeople read the Megilah before the Mukafin (who read it on Friday); so too, this year.
2. Rebbi derives *his* opinion from there - it is like every year, he says, when the townspeople read it on the fourteenth; so too, this year.
(c) The Tana Kama does not want to say that just like every year, the towns should read on the fourteenth, and Rebbi, that just like every year, the townspeople should precede the Mukafin - because that, each one maintains, is only when it is possible, whereas here it is not (for the reasons that they have already given).
(a) In another Beraisa, the Tana Kama says that the Mukafin read on Thursday together with the villagers. He explains "be'Chol Shanah ve'Shanah" - to mean that, like every year, when townspeople read on the fourteenth and the Mukafin on a different day, so too this year.

(b) Rebbi Yossi says - that the Mukafin do not read with the villagers, but on Friday together with the townspeople (like Rebbi). *He* explains like on other years, the Mukafin do not precede the townspeople, so too this year.

(c) According to the above, the author of our Mishnah, which rules that, when Purim falls on Friday, the townspeople read the Megilah together with the Mukafin, on Friday - will be either Rebbi Yossi or Rebbi.

8) We will reconcile Rebbi (who just said that the townspeople do not bring the reading of the Megilah forward from Friday to Thursday) with what he himself writes in another Beraisa, that, when Purim falls on Shabbos, the townspeople move forward to read on Thursday, together with the villagers (and not on Friday) - by pointing out that the in the latter ruling, the townspeople have to move the reading from Shabbos anyway. Consequently, they move it to Thursday, to read together with the villagers; whereas in our Sugya, when Purim falls on Friday (where it is not necessary to move), Rebbi maintains that they read it on Friday.


(a) When Rebbi Chelbo Amar Rav Huna says that, when Purim falls on Shabbos, 'all advance the reading to Thursday' - he cannot mean that literally - because the Mukafin read the Megilah on Sunday, and not on the previous Thursday.

(b) What he really means to say is - that whoever advances the reading, brings it forward to the previous Thursday, and not to Friday.

(c) Rebbi Chelbo Amar Rav Huna - holds like Rebbi.

(d) According to the Tana Kama - the townspeople advance the reading from Shabbos to Friday.

(a) Everyone agrees however, that one does not read the Megilah on Shabbos. Rabah explains that this is because - one might otherwise come to carry one's Megilah to an expert to ask him how to Lein, and in the process, come to carry four Amos in the street.

(b) Rabah mention carrying four Amos in the street, rather than carrying from the house into the street, which is certainly more common - because then it includes even someone who slept out in the open with his Megilah, in which case, he cannot transgress the Isur of carrying from his house into the street (see also Tosfos DH 've'Ya'avirenah').

(c) Rav Yosef adds another reason for the decree. According to him - we are also worried about the poor, who anticipate the distribution of Sh'lach Manos on the day that one reads the Megilah, and on Shabbos, there is a problem getting it to them.

(d) We are forced to admit that Rav Yosef does not disagree with Rabah's reason, but only comes to add an additional one - because otherwise, what reason will he give for the parallel decrees regarding blowing the Shofar and taking the Lulav on Shabbos?

(a) The Beraisa which the Gemara quotes to substantiate Rav Yosef's reason, says '*Af-al-Pi* she'Amru Kefarim Makdimin le'Yom ha'Kenisah, Govin Bo be'Yom u'Mechalkin Bo be'Yom' - amends it to read (not '*Af-al-Pi* she'Amru ... , but ') *Ho'il* ve'Amru ... '.

(b) The Tana is saying that - since the villagers advance the reading of the Megilah, they also advance the distribution of Matanos la'Evyonim (in order not to disappoint the poor).

(c) The Mitzvah of Mishlo'ach Manos and Se'udas Purim however - the villagers are obligated to fulfill on the fourteenth, together with the townspeople.

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,