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Menachos 28

1) [line 1] D'KAI MIZRACH U'MA'ARAV - [when the Kohen is] standing [along an] east-west [line, i.e. facing east]

(a) One of the methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah is Hekesh, in which two subjects that are mentioned in a verse are compared. If there are a few possible Halachos that the Hekesh teaches, we learn all of them ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechtzah"). We do not say that it teaches us only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).
(b) Normal questions ("Pirchos") that can invalidate a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:22) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30) will not invalidate a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").
(c) The Gemara (Zevachim 49b-50a) investigates whether a Halachah that is extrapolated from one of these methods can be used further to teach the same Halachah in a different subject using another (or the same) one of these methods.

3a) [line 10] KAN L'HACHSHIR - this one (the Beraisa that states that Haza'os that are not performed li'Sheman are Kesheiros) [means that the Haza'os are considered Kesheiros] to render [the Sheyarim of the Log of olive oil] fit [for consumption by the Kohanim]
b) [line 10] KAN L'HARTZOS - that one (the Beraisa that states that Haza'os that are not performed li'Sheman are Pesulos) [means that the Haza'os are considered Pesulos in that they do not provide atonement for the Metzora to the extent that: (a) he may not enter a settlement (RASHI DH l'Ratzos -- it is possible that Rashi's words refer to the Haza'os of the Tziporei Metzora -- Vayikra 14:7 -- and stem from an earlier version of Peirush Rashi based upon a different interpretation of the Gemara -- YT); (b) he may not eat Kodshim (RASHI to Daf 27b DH she'Lo li'Sheman and to Yoma 61b DH l'Hachshiro); (c) he must bring another Korban, but he already may eat Kodshim RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 5:7)

4) [line 12] KENEI MENORAH - branches of the Menorah, the golden candelabra

(a) The Torah commands that a Mezuzah be affixed to the doorposts of one's home (Devarim 6:9). A Mezuzah is a piece of parchment upon which the Parshah of "Shema" (Devarim 6:4-9) and the Parshah of "v'Hayah Im Shamo'a" (Devarim 11:13-21) are written. Both of these Parshiyos contain a verse commanding the Mitzvah of Mezuzah.
(b) The Mitzvah to affix a Mezuzah to the doorposts of one's home is the obligation of the resident. It applies at all times and is not limited to any particular time, and therefore a woman is obligated in this Mitzvah, as in all Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zeman Geraman.

6) [line 14] KESAV ECHAD - one letter
7) [line 15] ARBA PARSHIYOS SHEBA'TEFILIN - the four Parshiyos written on the parchments of the Tefilin: "Shema" (Devarim 6:4-9), "v'Hayah Im Shamo'a" (Devarim 11:13-21), "Kadesh Li" (Shemos 13:1-10) and v'Hayah Ki Yevi'acha (Shemos 13:11-16). Each one contains verses commanding the Mitzvah of Tefilin.

8) [line 18] HAVAYAH - the word "Yiheyu," "they shall be," in the verse, "Kaftoreihem u'Kenosam Mimena *Yiheyu*..." - "Their ornamental balls and their branches *shall be* from it (they shall stem from the middle branch of the Menorah)..." (Shemos 25:36)

9) [line 19] HA'ESHES - a metal block
10) [line 20] GERUTA'OS - broken pieces of things, in this case, gold
11) [line 21] MINEI MATACHOS - types of metal
12) [line 22] MIKSHAH V'HAVAYAH - the words "Mikshah," "of hammered workmanship" and "Yiheyu," "they shall be," in the verse, "v'Asisa Menoras Zahav Tahor, *Mikshah* Tei'aseh ha'Menorah, Yereichah v'Kanah, Gevi'eha, Kaftoreha u'Feracheha Mimenah *Yiheyu*." - "And you shall make a candelabra of pure gold; *of hammered workmanship* shall the candelabra be made; its base, and its branches, its cups, its balls, and its flowers, *shall be* from it (hammered from a single block of gold)." (Shemos 25:31)

13) [line 23] TEI'ASEH - the word "Tei'aseh," "it shall be made" in the verse quoted in the previous entry

14) [line 25] A'MIKSHAH KESIVAH HAVAYAH - in the verse (Shemos 25:31), the word "Yiheyu" is closer to the word "Mikshah" than to the word "Zahav" (RASHI)

15) [line 26] MIKSHAH MIKSHAH - the word "Mikshah" is written twice in Shemos 25, in verses 31 and 36, teaching that the Menorah is Pesulah if it is made from Geruta'oss

16) [line 30] LI'DERASHA - used for a Derashah (i.e. used for expounding a Halachah)

17) [line 32] MAI DARSHAS BEI? - what Derashah can you learn from the extra word (or words -- see Shitah Mekubetzes #16) of Mikshah (since Geruta'os are Kesheiros according to this opinion)?

18) [line 34] BA'AH ZAHAV BA'AH KIKAR - when it is made of gold, it must be made from a Kikar (a talant [of Hekdesh], or a weight of 3000 Shekels) of gold, approximately equal to 42.48 or 51 kilograms, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

19) [line 35] "GEVI'EHA KAFTOREHA U'FERACHEHA" - "its cups, its balls, and its flowers" (Shemos 25:31) - These are the ornamental shapes that decorated the Menorah, as the Gemara brings on Amud Beis

20) [line 38] BA'AH KANIM - it is made with branches
21) [line 39] HA'HU PAMOT MIKRI - that is called a candlestick (ARUCH)
22) [line 40] BA'AH ZAHAV BA'AH MIKSHAH - when it is made of gold, it must be of hammered workmanship, made from one block of gold

23) [line 42] MIKSHAH D'SEIFA L'MAI ASA - for what is the later word Mikshah in that verse (Bamidbar 8:4; see below, entry #25) used?

24) [line 43] CHATZOTZROS - horns (mentioned in Bamidbar 10:2, which were made of silver and blown by the Kohanim -- TOSFOS DH Chatzotzros)

25) [last line] "[V'ZEH MA'ASEH HA'MENORAH MIKSHAH ZAHAV, AD YERECHAH AD PIRCHAH] MIKSHAH HI..." - "[And the workmanship of the candelabra was of hammered gold, including its base and its flower,] it was of hammered work; [according to the pattern which HaSh-m had shown Moshe, so he made the candelabra.]" (Bamidbar 8:4)


26a) [line 6] MI'SHELCHA - from your [money] (This and the following entry describe a general argument (Yoma 3a-b) regarding the verses in the Torah that use the expressions "Kach Lecha" and "Aseh Lecha," whether the object named is to be purchased with individual or public funds.)
b) [line 6] KIV'YACHOL B'SHELCHA ANI ROTZEH YOSER MI'SHELAHEM - (a) if it were possible for the congregation of Yisrael to fulfill their obligation or achieve atonement through the actions or Korbanos of an individual, I would prefer yours over theirs (RASHI); (b) I would definitely prefer yours over theirs (since it is difficult to say that HaSh-m detests the actions or Korbanos of the congregation of Yisrael, the word "kiv'Yachol" is used, meaning "if it were possible to say so") (RASHI to Yoma 3b DH kiv'Yachol, 2nd explanation; this is the common usage of the word kiv'Yachol in the Gemara)

27) [line 7] HAI NAMI - this, too (the word "Lecha" of the Chatzotzros should also be a subject of the Tana'ic argument from Yoma 3b, and not be used to teach that the Chatzotzros that Moshe made were Pesulos for future generations)

28a) [line 12] BA'ATZ - (O.F. estain) tin
b) [line 12] AVAR - (O.F. plombe) lead
c) [line 12] GISTERON - (O.F. (a) letron - a piece of copper; (b) metal - any type of metal, but probably a piece of tin -- Otzar ha'La'azim, M. Katan, Yerushalayim, 5748) an alloyed metal (ARUCH)

29a) [line 13] ETZ - wood
b) [line 14] ETZEM - bone
c) [line 14] ZECHUCHIS - glass

30) [line 15] MAI DA'ATACH? - (lit. What is your opinion?) By what logic do you learn that Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah rules that tin and lead are valid and wood is not? (RASHI)

(a) In order to extract the Halachah from the verses of the Torah, many Tana'im interpret the verses on the basis of Kelalim (generalizations) and Peratim (specifications). Others interpret the verses on the basis of Ribuyim (inclusions, i.e. qualifications that enlarge the scope of the law) and Mi'utim (exclusions).
(b) According to the approach that learns Kelalei u'Fratei, when a Kelal is followed by a Perat, which is followed in turn by another Kelal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Perat is included. Anything that is not in the *general category* of the limiting Perat is not included. According to the approach that learns Ribuyei u'Mi'utei, the outcome mentioned previously (for Kelal u'Frat u'Chlal) is already achieved when a Ribuy is followed only by a Mi'ut. When a Ribuy is followed by a Mi'ut and the Mi'ut is followed in turn by another Ribuy, then everything is included except for *one item* that is totally dissimilar to the limiting Mi'ut. (This means that the verse will include *more* instances than the first opinion assumed.)

32) [line 17] MATECHES - metal
33) [line 18] DAVAR CHASHUV - an important substance
34) [line 19] SAMI DIDACH MEKAMEI DIDI - withdraw yours (your teaching) because of mine (the Beraisa that the Gemara will now quote)

See above, entry #31.

36) [line 29] CHERES - earthenware
37a) [line 30] NECHOSHES - copper
b) [line 30] BARZEL - iron
c) [line 30] BEDIL - tin
d) [line 30] OFERES - lead

38) [line 31] TAVNIS HEICHAL - according to the dimensions of the Beis ha'Mikdash (using the words of the verse in Tehilim, 144:12)

39) [line 32] ACHSADRAH KENEGED ULAM - a portico built using the dimensions of the Ulam

40) [line 32] CHATZER KENEGED AZARAH - a yard built using the dimensions of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash

41) [line 33] SHEL CHAMISHAH - [a candelabra] of five [branches]

(a) Before Yochanan Kohen Gadol (Yochanan Hyrkanus), the grandson of Matisyahu, died, he commanded that his reign as ruler of the land of Yehudah be passed on to his wife. However, his son Yehudah Aristobulus, paid no attention to his father's testament. He imprisoned his mother and brothers, except for one brother named Antigonus and seized power for himself. He appointed Antigonus as head of the army. Aristobulus was the first Hasmonean ruler to call himself "king"; all of his predecessors had the title of "prince." He was hostile to the Sages, and pursued them with ruthlessness. He ruled over Yehudah for only one year and died childless in the year 3658 (103 BCE).
(b) He was succeeded by his widow, Queen Shlomtziyon or Shelomis [Salome] Alexandra, a sister of Shimon Ben Shetach, the leading sage of the period, to whom she was loyal even when married to an archenemy of the sages. After her husband died, she freed his brothers from prison. The oldest brother, Alexander Yanai, performed Yibum with her, and later succeeded his dead brother to the throne.
(c) Under the influence of his wife, Yanai halted the suppression of the Perushim and the Sages for a time, so that he could pursue the war against the hostile Nochri enclave in the Land of Yisrael. He did this throughout most of the twenty-seven years of his reign, motivated by lust for battle and glory. As time went on, however, he used the foreign soldiers in his army to suppress his own people and hunt down the Perushim.
(d) One year during Sukos, when officiating as Kohen Gadol, he poured the Nisuch ha'Mayim (libation water) on his feet instead of the on the Mizbe'ach, in accordance with the teachings of the Tzedukim who deny the Halachah of Nisuch ha'Mayim. He intended to incite the people to riot. Those assembled could not contain themselves and they pelted him with their Esrogim. His soldiers then slew more than 6,000 people in the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash. This marked his declaration of war against the Sages and their followers, a violent oppression that lasted for six years, in the course of which some 50,000 Jews lost their lives. At the end of his life he imprisoned 800 Perushim and tortured them in a horrible manner, according to the custom of the Romans, executing their families in their presence. He then executed the prisoners themselves. He witnessed the ghastly carnage himself.
(e) Before dying, he transferred power to Queen Shelomis and advised her to make peace with the Perushim. He told her, "Do not fear the Perushim, nor the non-Perushim, but only the hypocrites, who masquerade as Perushim. For their deeds are like those of Zimri and they demand a reward like that of Pinchas" (Sotah 22b). He had finally realized where his Tzeduki connections had brought him, and saw that his wife was right in trying to help the Perushim. His reign of 27 years lasted until either 3684 or 3685 (77 or 76 BCE).
(f) During the next 11 years, when Shelomis was queen, peace and tranquility reigned in the land. It was the only golden era during the time of the Second Temple. The subsequent kings who ruled from her family were known as the kings of Beis Chashmonai, whose rule ended when Herod (who ruled between 37 - 4 BCE) proclaimed himself king. (from The History of the Jewish People/The Second Temple Era, Artscroll Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, 1982, adapted by Rabbi Hersh Goldwurm from Dr. E. Ebner's translation of Yekusiel Friedner's Divrei Yemei ha'Bayis ha'Sheni)

43) [line 35] SHEPUDIM - (lit. skewers) metal pieces that were not decorated (TOSFOS DH Shepudim), used as branches of the Menorah

44) [line 36] CHIPUM B'VA'ATZ - they overlaid them with tin (to make them look like silver -- YT)

45) [line 36] HE'ESHIRU - they became wealthy
46) [line 37] MI'SHEMEI D'SABA - in the name of an old (unnamed) Torah sage
47) [line 37] GOVHAH - its height
48a) [line 38] HA'RAGLAYIM - the feet [of its base]
b) [line 38] HA'PERACH - the flower [of its base]
49) [line 38] TEFACHAYIM CHALAK - two Tefachim that were smooth (with no decorative shapes

50) [line 38] KAFTOR - (O.F. pomel) an ornamental ball on metal utensils
51) [line 39] ECHAD EILACH - one in one direction
52) [line 44] L'MAH HEN DOMIN? - to what can they be compared?
53) [line 44] KOSOS ALEKSANDERIYIM - (O.F. madernes) long, thin decorative glasses made in Alexandria of Egypt

54) [line 45] TAPUCHEI HA'KERESIYIM - the apples of Keresiya (that were wider than they were tall -- ARUCH)

55) [line 46] PIRCHEI HA'AMUDIN - the flower ornaments of columns
56) [last line] DIDAH - of it (the middle, main branch of the Menorah)

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