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[line 1] SHI'UR L'MA'ALAH - maximum length
[line 1] SHI'UR L'MATAH - minimum length
[line 4] KEDEI L'NA'ANE'A BO - in order to be able to shake it
[line 7] ANAF - the hanging ends of the strings
[line 8] "VA'YIKACHENI B'TZITZIS ROSHI" - "[And he sent forth the likeness of a hand,] and he took me by the hanging locks of my head...." (Yechezkel 8:3)
[line 9] V'TZARICH LI'FERUDAH - and one must separate it (the hanging strings)
[line 9] KI TZUTZISA D'ARAMA'EI - like the locks of hair of the Arameans (the ends of which are separated), known as the Beloris, the long hair grown at the back of the head by idol-worshipping youths of the upper classes in honor of their gods, that was offered to their gods once a year
[line 10] HITIL AL HA'KEREN - he placed the Tzitzis at the very edge of the garment's corner
[line 10] AL HE'GEDIL - (a) on the Gedil, a thick, strong thread that is sewn at the edge of a garment to prevent the garment from tearing; (b) (O.F. orels) the warp (lengthwise) threads hanging from the edge of a garment
[line 13] NOTEFES AL HE'KEREN - hanging over the corner. (The Tzitzis strings must be hanging from the side of the garment such that it passes the corner of the garment as it hangs down.)
[line 15] SHE'YARCHIK MELO KESHER GUDAL - one must distance [the hole through which the Tzitzis strings pass] the complete length of the joint of the thumb [from the edge of the garment] (this refers to the length of the thumb from the top of the nail to below the knuckle in the middle of the thumb)
[line 17] TOCH SHALOSH D'LO LIRCHIK TEFEI - [we might have thought that the Tzitzis must be] within three [fingerbreadths] in order that it not be too far away [from the edge of the garment]
[line 18] V'CHAMAH DI'MEKAREV MA'ALEI - but the closer [it is to the edge of the garment] the better
[line 22] CHAZYEI - he saw
[line 22] L'KARNEI DI'GELIMEI - the corners of his garment
[line 23] D'SASAR U'VATZAR MI'MELO KESHER GUDAL - (a) that [his garment] had torn and [the place at which the Tzitzis were attached] was less than the complete length of the joint of the thumb; (b) (O.F. esfiler - to fray) that [the fabric at the edge of the garment] had become frayed and there was less than the complete length of the joint of the thumb [until the place at which the Tzitzis were attached]
[line 24] BI'SHE'AS ASIYAH - at the time of making [of the Tzitzis, there was a proper distance from the edge of the garment to the point at which the Tzitzis were attached]
[line 25] ICHSIF - he (Rav Sama) was embarrassed
[line 25] LO SASKIF LACH - do not let it rest heavily upon you (i.e. do not be upset)
[line 26] CHAD MINAIHU KI'TREI MINAN - one of them is like two of us (that is, one Amora from Eretz Yisrael (like Ravina) is as great in wisdom as two Amora'im from Bavel -- like the two of us, i.e. Rav Ashi and Rav Sama -- RASHI)
[line 27] V'AYIF LEHU MEI'AF - and he would fold them over (to make eight strings)
[line 27] U'ME'AYEIL LEHU BI'GELIMA - and then insert them into the garment
[line 28] V'AVIK LEHU MEIVAK - and he tied them with loops (the folded part -- i.e. the middle -- of the four strings are inserted into the hole, leaving a loop on one side of the garment and eight strings on the other side. Most of the strings are inserted into the loops and the strings left out are used to tie the strings in the loops. The strings are either left this way or circled in the normal way of wrapping the Kerichos of the Tzitzis, which obscures the loops from view when the Gedil is finished)
[line 28] BA'INAN TEMANYA BI'GELIMA - eight strings are needed in the garment
[line 29] DI'LEHEVEI GEDIL GEDILIM BI'MEKOM PESIL - so that there should be a fulfillment of the verses of Gedilim (Devarim 22:12) and Pesil (Bamidbar 15:38). ("Gedil" signifies two strings; "Gedilim" doubles these two to four, and "Pesil" strings are parallel to the Gedilim, adding another four
[line 31] D'INHU SHITSAR - that they are sixteen (when they are folded over)
[line 31] V'LO AVIK LEHU - and he did not loop them
[line 34] MAI "TZITZI" SHAMANA? - What is this chirping sound (that sounds like "Tzitzis") that I hear?
[line 35] KI NACH NAFSHEI - when he (Rav Huna) died
[line 36] AL RAV CHISDA - Rav Chisda went up (to the study hall)
[line 36] L'MIRMA - to show a contradiction
[line 41] MAI RUMYA? - What is the contradiction?
[line 44] U'CHELALA HU?! - Is that a rule?!
[line 45] ROFEI ARAMA'I - an Aramean (Nochri) doctor

[line 45] KUSI (KUSIM)
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

[line 48] MIDI HU TA'AMA ELA L'RAV - are we not trying to explain the reasoning of Rav (who says that a Jew recites a blessing only for a Mitzvah that cannot be done by a Nochri)?
[line 48] MIFSIL PASIL - [the Milah performed by a Nochri] is certainly invalid
[line 50] HA'MAL YIMOL - the one who is himself circumcised shall circumcise (excluding a Nochri from performing Milah to a Jew)
[line 50] SUKAH MESAYE'A LEI - the law regarding Sukah supports him
[line 50] TEFILIN HEVEI TIYUVTEI - the law regarding Tefilin refutes him
[line 52] SUKAH MI'KOL MAKOM - "any Sukah at all"; the Gemara in Sukah (8b) explains that this phrase includes the Sukos of Ro'im (shepherds), Kayatzim (watchmen who guard the cut figs ("Ketzi'os") left in the field to dry), Burganin (watchmen who guard the city), and Shomrei Peiros (watchmen who guard fruits).
[line 52] MESUCHECHES K'HILCHASAH - the Sechach was placed on the Sukah according to Halachah (i.e. the Sechach was placed on the Sukah for shade and not only for privacy)


[line 1] MI'PASHRANIYA - from Pashraniya, in Bavel

[line 2] TZEDUKI / MIN
(a) The Tzedukim (and Baitusim) were students of Tzadok (and Baitus) who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b) A Min refers to a Jewish infidel or idolater

[line 15] MOSER - A Jew who, of his own volition, reveals the location of another's possession to someone who wants to take them away (see Insights to Kerisus 2b) (this is the Girsa of the SHITAH MEKUBETZES according to the MAHARSHAL)
[line 16] KUSI - see above, entry #34.

[line 3] MUMAR - a Jewish apostate, a person who does not keep the laws of the Torah
[line 3] "U'KESHARTAM [L'OS AL YADECHA, V'HAYU L'TOTAFOS BEIN EINECHA.] U'CHESAVTAM [AL MEZUZOS BEISECHA UVI'SHE'ARECHA.]" - "[Therefore] you shall bind them [for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes.] And you shall write them [upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates.]" (Devarim 6:8-9)
[line 4] SHE'YESHNO - whoever has [the obligation of]
[line 12] D'ASIYASAH GEMAR MITZVAH - that with its performance the Mitzvah is completed
[line 18] ATUN HACHI MASNISU LAH - you, this is how you learned it
[line 21] YA'ASU LAHEM ACHERIM - others (Nochrim) shall do for them (shall make the Tzitzis for them)
[line 23] KOTZIM (O.F. pluches) - threads (of the warp or longitudinal threads of the loom) that appear like thorns that stick out
[line 23] NIMIN - sewing threads which hang out after the garment is completed
[line 23] GERADIN (O.F. fernjes) - threads (fringes) which hang from the bottom of the woven garment
[line 24] SISIN - balls of thread (from which the woof and warp are threaded)
[line 25] BA'INAN TEVIYAH LI'SHEMAH - the spinning of the threads for the Tzitzis must be done for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitztis
[line 26] TZIPAN ZAHAV - he overlaid gold leaf on them (on the Batim, the boxes of the Tefilin that are made from the skin of a Kosher animal)
[line 26] TALAH ALEIHEN OR BEHEMAH TEME'AH - he stretched over and attached to the Batim the skin of a non-Kosher animal

[line 28] SHE'LO IBDAN LI'SHEMAN - [even though[ they were not processed with specific intent to be used for the Mitzvah (IBUD LI'SHEMAH)
Ibud is the tanning of soft skin of Kosher domesticated animals into leather. When a person wants to start writing a Sefer Torah, Tefilin or Mezuzos, the Tana'im argue as to whether he must perform the Ibud Lishmah, that is, for the sake of the Mitzvah.

[line 31] HA TECHEILTA, HEICHI TZAV'ISU LAH? - the Techeles, how do we produce the dye?
[line 32] MAISINAN DAM CHILAZON - we bring the blood of the Chilazon (see Insights to Menachos 44:1)
[line 32] SAMANIN (O.F. alum) - crystal alum, any of a group of double salts analogous to and including potash alum (RASHI)
[line 32] V'RAMINAN LEHU B'YOREH - and we throw them into the pot
[line 33] U'MARTECHINAN LEI - and we boil it
[line 33] V'SHAKLINA PURTA B'VEI'ASA - and we take out a little with an eggshell
[line 34] V'TA'AMINAN LEHU B'UDRA - and we test it on a scrap of combed wool
[line 34] V'SHADINAN LEI L'HA'HU BEI'ASA - and we throw out that eggshell
[line 35] KALINAN - we burn
[line 36] TE'IMAH PESULAH - Techeles used for testing is invalid [for use in Tzitzis]
[line 37] TZEVI'AH LI'SHEMAH - dyeing for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis
[line 38] (TE'IMAH) [TA'AMAH] PASLAH - if he dyed the test wool in the pot of Techeles, he invalidates the entire pot of dye for use in the Mitzvah
[line 42] "KELIL TECHELES" - "[You shall make the Me'il of the Efod] entirely of Techeles." (Shemos 28:31). Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel derives from here that the Techeles used to dye the Me'il (and, likewise, the Tzitzis) must be used completely for the Me'il and may not have been used for any other prior purpose
[line 43] MAR'EH SHENI SHE'BAH - the appearance of dye being used for the second time in it
[line 44] ("U'SHENI SOLA'AS") "V'SOLA'AS SHANI" - "[And Techeles, and purple,] and scarlet wool..." (Shemos 25:4). Rebbi Yochanan ben Dehavai learns that just as the scarlet dye could be used even though it was used for some other purpose earlier, so, too, the Techeles may be used even though it was used for some other purpose earlier. (The words in our text of the Gemara, "u'Sheni Sola'as," and the reference to Vayikra 14:4, are in error, as Techeles is not mentioned in that verse; DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #5)
[line 45] EIN LAH BEDIKAH - it cannot be checked (that is, it is impossible to determine whether it is real Techeles or whether it is the imitation Techeles)
[line 45] EIN NIKCHEIS - it may not be purchased
[line 45] MUMCHEH - expert
[line 46] SEFARIM - Sifrei Torah (RASHI; see TOSFOS DH Tefilin who argues, quoting sources that state that Sifrei Torah indeed need Ibud li'Sheman)
[last line] SIMAN B'GESHEM - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the three substances used to check whether material was dyed with real Techeles or whether it was dyed with the imitation Techeles. It stands for Me*g*avya Gila; Maya d'*Sh*avlilta; and Meimei Raglayim.
[last line] MAISI - he would bring
[last line] MEGAVYA GILA- (O.F. alum) liquid alum, any of a group of double salts analogous to and including potash alum
[last line] MAYA D'SHAVLILTA - (O.F. fenogre) the juice of fenugreek, an annual Asian and southern European plant of the pea family, having aromatic, mucilaginous (sticky, gummy, containing or secreting mucilage) seeds that are used in making curry, and for medicinal purposes
[last line] MEIMEI RAGLAYIM - urine

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