|(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)
The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which was included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
1) [line 1] HA'SHE'AR NE'ECHALOS B'FIDYON - the others (lit. the rest) are eaten after being redeemed (the Gemara will presently explain this phrase)
16) [line 1] TERED V'SITAMEI - he should let the wine of Terumah fall down into the pit, which will cause the Terumah to become Temei'ah, thereby rendering the entire vat of Chulin Temei'im unusable (before the Terumah falls in, people who are Temei'im are able to drink this wine; after Terumah falls in, they cannot, since Terumah Temei'ah must be burned -- Mishnah Temurah 33b)
17) [line 1] V'AL YETAM'ENAH B'YAD - and he should not make the wine of Terumah Tamei by using a utensil that is Tamei to collect it (even though when it falls into the pit, the Chulin Temei'im will become unusable)
18) [line 4] SHE'LO K'MITZVASAN - (a) she'Lo Lishman, not for their sake (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) not according to their prerequisites, e.g. offering two-year-old sheep instead of one-year-old sheep (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
19) [line 5] MAR, D'MAKISH LEHU L'CHATAS - the Master (Rav Yitzchak), who compares them to a Korban Chatas (because they are mentioned in the same verse as the Korban Chatas of Shavu'os -- Vayikra 23:19)
20a) [line 7] SHALMEI CHOVAH - obligatory Korbenos Shelamim (KIVSEI ATZERES)
(a) The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17). Besides Korbenos Olah, two sheep that are Zivchei Shelamim are to be offered in conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem (ibid. 23:19). These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.
(b) If one of the four Avodos (Shechitah, Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachah and Zerikas ha'Dam -- see Background to Menachos 2:18) of a Korban Pesach or Chatas are performed she'Lo Lishmo (not for the sake of that particular Korban), they are Pasul. All other sacrifices are Kosher and may be offered on the Mizbe'ach. This applies to the Kivsei Atzeres that are slaughtered she'Lo Lishman as well, as the Gemara states (Beitzah 20b), "its blood may be cast on the Mizbe'ach and its meat may be eaten."
b) [line 7] SHALMEI NEDAVAH - voluntary Korbenos Shelamim
21) [line 8] SHALMEI NAZIR (NAZIR)
(a) If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b) When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into twenty loaves of Matzah, ten Chalos (unleavened loaves) and ten Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off his hair and burns it under the pot in which the Zero'a (the right hind leg) of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (Sefer ha'Chinuch #377)
22a) [line 11] LECHEM - the loaves that normally accompany the Korban Shelamim of a Nazir (see above, entry #21:b)
b) [line 11] ZERO'A - the right hind leg of the Korban Shelamim of a Nazir (see above, entry #21:b)
23a) [line 11] ASHAM BEN SHANAH - a Korban Asham that must be a one-year-old lamb
b) [line 12] BEN SHTAYIM - a Korban Asham that must be a two-year-old ram
24) [line 14] OLAS NAZIR - the Korban Olah of a Nazir that must be a one-year-old lamb (see above, entry #21:b)
25) [line 14] OLAS YOLEDES - the Korban Olah of a woman after childbirth (that must be a one-year-old lamb) (KORBAN YOLEDES)
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:14). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
26) [line 14] OLAS METZORA - the Korban Olah brought by a Metzora (that must be a one-year-old lamb) (KORBAN METZORA)
(a) THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora (see Background to Zevachim 102:3) is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b) The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He counts seven days ("Yemei Sefiro"), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:14).
(c) On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).
(d) The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38)). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.
(e) After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)
27) [line 18] TANA D'VEI LEVI HU - that Beraisa is the opinion of Tana d'Vei Levi (who learns the laws of an obligatory Korban (Chovah) from a voluntary Korban (Nedavah))
28) [line 21] MECHUSAR ZEMAN B'VA'ALIM - the owner of a Korban who is not yet fit to bring his Korban (because his appropriate time has not yet arrived)
29a) [line 26] ASHAM GEZEILOS
A person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26). This is one of the five cases specified by the Torah in which the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The animal offered is a ram that costs at least two Sela'im.
b) [line] ASHAM ME'ILOS
A person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Shevuos 34:24). This is one of the five cases in which the Torah specifies that the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The animal offered is a ram that costs at least two Sela'im.
30a) [line 29] DAVAR SHE'LO B'HECHSHEIRO - something [that is offered] in an improper manner (such as a type of Korban that is valid when offered she'Lo Lishmah)
b) [line 30] DAVAR SHEBE'HECHSHEIRO - something [that is offered] in its proper manner
31) [last line] SHE'IM ALAH LO YERED - if they are placed upon the Mizbe'ach, they may not be removed (even though they are not supposed to be placed on the Mizbe'ach in the first place)
32) [last line] YOTZEI KASHER B'VAMAH - a Korban that was brought outside of the confines of a Bamah (a private altar) is permitted to be offered on the Bamah (during times that a Bamah is permitted)