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[line 1] TANA B'ALMA KAI - the Tana is stating a general rule that applies throughout the year (and not specifically to Rosh ha'Shanah followed by or preceded by Shabbos -- RASHI)
[line 3] KEDEI L'SHABBOS - for a time equivalent to Shabbos
[line 7] CHINUCH, MAN DACHAR SHEMEI? - Who mentioned Chinuch, the inauguration of the Mizbechos, Shulchan and all other utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash?
[line 8] CHESUREI MECHASRA - it is certainly missing [some text] (see Insights to Bava Kama 39:1:a)
[line 10] SHE'LO NISCHANECH HA'MIZBE'ACH - when the Mizbe'ach had not been inaugurated [yet]
[line 11] YAKRIVU BEIN HA'ARBAYIM - they may offer the Korban Tamid in the afternoon (that is, one animal is offered as the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim -- TOSFOS DH ba'Meh)
[line 12] ANUSIN - being forced not to offer the Korban
[line 12] SHOGEGIN - unintentionally neglecting to offer the Korban
[line 13] MEZIDIN - intentionally neglecting to offer the Korban
[line 23] V'CHI KOHANIM CHAT'U, MIZBE'ACH BATEL? - [If] the Kohanim are lax and [intentionally neglect to offer the Korban Tamid, should this be a reason to leave] the Mizbe'ach inactive?
[line 26] D'LO SHECHICHA - (a) it is infrequent that the Kohanim intentionally neglect to offer the Ketores (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the Ketores is offered less frequently than Olos (burnt offerings), and as such, it is more cherished by the Kohanim (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) it is not done frequently by one person, since the Kohanim were particular to only allow each Kohen one chance in a lifetime to offer the Ketores, since the Kohen who offers it becomes rich through a special blessing (RASHI, 3rd explanation)
[line 26] ME'ASRA - it causes [the Kohen who offers it] to become rich
[line 26] CHAVIVA LEHU - it is more cherished by them
[line 26] V'LO FASH'EI - they will not be negligent
[line 32] "... BA'BOKER BA'BOKER B'HEITIVO ES HA'NEROS YAKTIRENAH." - "[And Aharon ha'Kohen shall burn on it (the Golden Mizbe'ach) the Ketores (incense) [made] of spices;] every morning, when he is replenishing the lamps, he shall burn it." (Shemos 30:7)

(a) Every evening a Kohen lights the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is called Hadlakas ha'Neros. Enough oil is put into the Menorah's lamps to burn until the morning.
(b) In the morning, a Kohen would clean out the burned wicks and leftover oil that remained in the Menorah's lamps, and replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. This is what the Torah, and the Mishnah, calls Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah. The spent wicks were placed in the same pile of ashes near the ramp of the Mizbe'ach into which the Terumas ha'Deshen was placed.
(c) The cleaning of the lamps was done in two stages. First the Kohen would clean five of the lamps of the Menorah, then he would wait while other services of the Mikdash were done, and only afterwards would he complete the job and clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah.
(The above description is based on the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim. However, others assert that some or all of the lamps of the Menorah were lit in the morning as well, or that the Menorah was cleaned in a single step, according to some Tana'im. Also, the process described is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning by the morning. The Tana'im argue as to which service was done between the cleaning of the first five and the last two lamps. For more information, see Yoma 14a, Chart #2.)

[line 34] ME'URTA - from the previous night
[line 34] HATAVAH B'TZAFRA ME'HEICHA? - from where would there be a need to replenish the lamps in the morning?
[line 37] ICHNUCHEI HU D'LO MICHANECH - it cannot be inaugurated [on a weekday]
[line 37] HA KEDUSHEI MIKDISH? - but does it consecrate [the Lechem ha'Panim if they are placed there on a weekday as the inauguration of the Shulchan (the Golden Table)]?
[line 39] (ZEHU) [ZO HI] KETORES SHE'ALSAH L'YACHID - this is the Ketores that was offered (lit. went up) by individuals
[line 39] MIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON - on the outer Mizbe'ach, that stood in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash
[line 40] HORA'AS SHA'AH HAYESAH - it was an enactment that applied only at that specific time
[line 40] NESI'IM - the princes of the tribes of Yisrael, who offered inauguration sacrifices for the Mishkan in the desert (Bamidbar 7:1-88)
[line 41] MIZBE'ACH HA'PENIMI - the inner (Golden) Mizbe'ach in the Kodesh section of the Mishkan and the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Shemos 30:1-10), upon which the incense was burned
[line 42] MISNADEV - dedicate to Hekdesh (to the Beis ha'Mikdash)
[line 43] "MOTZA SEFASECHA TISHMOR V'ASISA, [KA'ASHER NADARTA LA'SH-M ELOKECHA NEDAVAH...]" - "That which emerges from your lips you shall observe and perform, [according to what you have vowed to HaSh-m, your G-d, an offering, anything that you have promised with your mouth.]" (Devarim 23:24)
[line 43] "LO SA'ALU ALAV KETORES ZARAH" - "You shall not offer upon it strange incense..." (Shemos 30:9) - It is prohibited to burn upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav any incense that is not ordained by the Torah.


[line 1] CHOVAH KA'YOTZEI VAH - [because the public brings] obligatory Ketores [on the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi] like it
[line 2] "LO SA'ALU" - "Do not offer [upon it]" (Shemos 30:9) - The word "Sa'alu" in this verse is in the plural, and as such, it precludes the public from offering voluntary Ketores on the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi
[line 7] D'LO ASHKECHAN - since we do not find [any instance of the public offering incense on the outer Mizbe'ach]

(a) The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM; our Gemara brings Amoraic and Tanaic arguments that offer different methods of preparing the Chavitin). Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin was one Revi'is, a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.
(b) An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:12). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).

[line 12] ISARON SHALEM - a full Isaron, the amount of flour needed for most Menachos, approximately equal to 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
[line 12] CHOTZEHU - he divides it (the flour) in half
[line 14] MINU - and they appointed
[line 17] MECHETZAH AVED - half of it is left until the morning when it is invalidated through Linah and is then burned (lit. lost)
[line 22] "MACHATZISAH BA'BOKER (U'MACHATZISAH BA'AREV)" - "half of it (of the twelve rolls) [are offered] in the morning" (Vayikra 6:13) - The Girsa change is made by DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #7 and SHITAH MEKUBETZES #6.
[line 22] MECHETZAH MI'SHALEM HU - it is half [of an Isaron] taken out of a whole [Isaron]
[line 35] MECHETZAH RISHON U'MECHETZAH SHENI - the first half (that needs to be destroyed, i.e. the second half-Isaron left over from the Kohen Gadol who died) and the second half (that needs to be destroyed, i.e. the second half-Isaron left over from the Minchah of the newly-appointed Kohen Gadol)
[line 36] ICHAZI L'HAKRAVAH - it is fit for being offered
[line 37] ME'IKARA L'IBUD KA ASI - it was destined to be destroyed from the beginning
[line 39] DEB'IDNA (D'FALGEI VEHU) [D'FALGINHU] - that at the time that he divides it
[line 39] IY BA'I HAI MAKRIV V'IY BA'I HAI MAKRIV - if he wants he may offer either half
[line 39] MICHAZA CHAZU - [both Chatza'ei Isaron] are considered fit [to be offered]
[line 40] OFEH - he bakes them
[line 41] METAGNAH - he fries them
[line 42] "[AL MACHAVAS BA'SHEMEN TE'ASEH MURBECHES TEVI'ENAH,] TUFINEI [MINCHAS PITIM TAKRIV RE'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M.]" - "[In a pan it shall be made with oil; you shall bring it scalded. A] well-baked (or repeatedly baked) [flour offering, broken into pieces shall you offer, for a pleasing [offering] to HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 6:14)
[line 42] TE'AFENAH NA'EH - bake it when it is pleasant (and not blackened by the frying pan)
[line 43] TE'AFENAH NA - bake it when it is undercooked (i.e. fried -- RASHI; it is possible that frying is termed "undercooking" since the rolls were thick -- YT)
[line 44] TE'AFENAH RABAH - (a) bake it repeatedly; it shall be baked, fried and baked (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) bake it large (i.e. a large round dough for each roll) after frying (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) according to the Girsa "TE'AFENAH RAKAH" - bake it soft after frying it with a large quantity of oil (that keeps it soft) (RASHI, 3rd explanation)
[line 45] LISHASAN - their kneading
[line 45] ARICHASAN - shaping them into loaves
[line 45] BIFNIM - inside [of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
[line 46] INASHFAH - it will dry out (RASHI)
[line 47] D'CHAVISH LEI B'YARKA - it is possible to cover them up with vegetables (and they will not dry out)

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