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Menachos 52

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 3] KA AVDEI MINEI L'MAKASAN - they used it to heal their wounds
2) [line 4] KA FARSHEI MI'SAFEK HAZA'OS - they did not use it when there was a Safek (doubt) as to whether they became Temei'im (since they were worried that they would transgress the prohibition of Me'ilah)

3) [line 5] PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR - the bull brought as a Korban Chatas bu the Sanhedrin
(a) The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) is obligated to bring a Korban in the following instance. If they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, instructed the Jewish people to act according to their ruling and the people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based upon this ruling. The sages bring twelve young bulls as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied upon the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring young bulls as Korbenos Olah and goats as Korbenos Chatas, one of each for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b) The blood of these bulls (and the goats) is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The remains of the bulls (and the goats) (including the meat and parts that are not sacrificed) are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)

4) [line 6] SE'IREI AVODAS KOCHAVIM - the goats brought as Korbenos Chatas by the Sanhedrin
See previous entry.

5) [line 7] BA'TECHILAH MAGVIN LAHEN - a separate collection is made to provide the funds for these Korbanos (and they are not brought using the funds from the Terumas ha'Lishkah - see next entry)

(a) Every year, one half Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Bava Metzia 57:16).
(b) The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c) The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not *less* than the value of half a Shekel.
(d) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).
(e) At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)
(f) There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should also be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).
(g) The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh (as described in our Gemara). The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).

7) [line 7] HAI MINAIHU ACHARISA? - Which Beraisa was taught last [and is the authoritative one]?

8) [line 10] LEIMA KAMAISA ACHARISA - let us assume that the first [Beraisa mentioned above] was [taught] last (chronologically)

9) [line 10] L'REBBI SHIMON D'CHAYISH LI'PESHI'AH - according to Rebbi Shimon, who rules that Rabbinic decrees were instituted to deal with the fact that the people are negligent (among the seven decrees mentioned in the Mishnayos (Shekalim 7:6-7), some of which are cited in the previous Sugya, Daf 51b)

10) [line 13] B'MILSA D'LEIS BEHU KAPARAH B'GAVAH - with regard to a Korban that does not provide atonement

11) [line 15] MAI HAVEI ALAH - What is the conclusion with regard to this? (Are the funds for the Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur and the Se'irei Avodas Kochavim collected from the community or from the Terumas ha'Lishkah?)

12) [line 22] U'VETEILAH - and inactive (i.e. no Chavitin are offered in the afternoon)

(a) The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b) To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
(c) The Korbenos Tamid are Olos, which are dismembered and burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Mishnah (Tamid 31a-b) states that thirteen Kohanim were employed to carry out the offering of the Korban Tamid (see below, (d)). In addition, after six of them carry the parts of the animal to the Kevesh (ramp) of the Mizbe'ach and place them there, other Kohanim would throw them from the Kevesh onto the bonfire on top of the Mizbe'ach. This procedure is a result of the verse, "b'Rov Am Hadras Melech" - "With a multitude of people is the King glorified" (Mishlei 14:28).
(d) The Mishnah (ibid.) lists the order of the Kohanim who perform the service:

1. The Kohen who slaughters the animal
2. The Kohen who collects the blood into a Kli Shares (a sanctified utensil) and performs Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach)
3. The one who cleans out the ashes of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi
4. The one who cleans out the ashes of the Menorah
5. The one who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand
6. The one who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand
7. The one who carries the hind quarters (including the fat tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand
8. The one who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Geirah (neck) in his left hand
9. The one who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right side with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Semol (the left side with the upper ribs) in his left hand
10. The one who carries the Kirbayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top
11. The one who carries the Minchas Nesachim
12. The one who carries the Minchas Chavitin
13. The one who carries the wine libation.
14) [line 24] HA ZIMIN D'LO MASHKACH LEI - there are times when there will not be [a Kohen who carries the Minchas Chavitin]

15) [line 26] BAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI - foolish Babylonians
16) [line 27] MISHUM D'YASVU B'ASRA D'CHASHOCHA AMREI SHEMA'ATASA DI'MECHASHCHAN - because they live in a dark land they say dark (incorrect) sayings. (Bavel is called a dark land because it is situated in a large valley.)

17a) [line 28] SHEVI'I BA'SOLES - the seventh Kohen carries the Minchas Nesachim (lit. fine flour, from which the Minchas Nesachim is made) (see above, entry #13)
b) [line 29] TESHI'I BA'YAYIN - the ninth Kohen carries the wine [libation] (see above, entry #13)

18) [line 31] "D'IY" LO KETANI - the Mishnah is not discussing irregular contingent situations

19) [line 32] AHADRUHA KAMEI D'RAVA - the matter (and the words of Rebbi Yirmeyah) was returned to Rava

20a) [line 32] MI'BISHUSIN AMREI KAMAIHU - our mistakes are related before them (the scholars of Eretz Yisrael)
b) [line 33] MI'TIVUSIN LO AMREI KAMAIHU - but our correct teachings are not related before them

21) [line 40] KEMATZIM - handfuls (a Kometz is the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm)


22) [line 1] HUCHPELAH LENOVASO - the amount of Levonah is doubled
23) [line 2] SILTO - its fine flour
24) [line 3] MAI D'GALI GALI - whatever has been revealed, is revealed (i.e. the amount of flour needed, as the Gemara proves from the verses, according to the opinions of the Tana'im, Daf 51b)

25) [line 3] V'SHEMEN - and oil (according to Rebbi Yosef ben Dosta'i and the Rabanan --RASHI)

26) [line 5] 5 KEMATZIN HEN - there are five handfuls mentioned in the Mishnah (Daf 106b)

27) [line 6] D'IY LO KETANI - see above, entry #18
28) [line 9] D'IY HAVAH, U'KETANI - it is an irregular contingent situation, and it is taught [in that Mishnah]

29) [line 22] HALACHAH KI'SETAM MISHAH - Rebbi Yochanan rules that the Halachah follows the opinion in a Mishnah that is recorded anonymously ("Stam," from the word "Sasam" - "to conceal")

30) [line 23] AMORA'EI NINHU V'ALIBA D'REBBI YOCHANAN - the Amora'im disagree about the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan


31) [line 25] CHAMETZ SHEBA'TODAH - the loaves of levened bread of the Korban Todah (KORBAN TODAH: 4 MINEI LECHEM)
(a) The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Todah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offer ed, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(b) An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:

  1. Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
  2. Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
  3. Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
  4. Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c) One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as *Terumas Lachmei Todah*.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.

32) [line 26] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Tefachim (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (ibid. 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.

33) [line 27] HA'SE'OR BODEH LAHEN MI'TOCHAN - the separates some flour and makes the sourdough from it

34) [line 27] U'MECHAMTZAN - and he causes it to leaven
35) [line 28] EINAH MIN HA'MUVCHAR - this is not the best way to bring the Korban (because the sourdough needs time to ferment)

36) [line 29] HA'MIDAH - the measuring utensil
37) [line 30] AF HI HAYESAH CHASERAH O YESERAH - that will make the amount of flour too little or too much

38) [line 32] MENALAN?! - "From where" [you ask]?! [the source in the Torah is clear!]

39) [last line] DI'CHESIV BAH KESIV BAH - whatever is written in the Torah is written (specified)

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