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Menachos 53

1) [line 4] KI KA MIBA'I LI L'AKEV - what I was actually asking was how do we know that offering a Minchah that was leavened invalidates the Minchah (lit. to prevent [the Minchah from being offered])

2) [line 7] SI'UR - the beginning of the leavening process / SIDUK - (lit. cracks [in the dough]) the completion of the leavening process)
(a) As dough becomes Chametz it goes through a number of stages. 1. First it becomes pale like the appearance of a man whose hair stands on end out of fright. 2. It then starts to form thin cracks on its surface, which look like locusts' antennae (Karnei Chagavim). 3. Next the cracks begin to multiply and run into each other.
(b) The Tana'im argue as to which stage is called "Si'ur," the stage that necessitates that the dough be burned, and that makes the dough Asur b'Hana'ah. Our Gemara cites their argument (see (c), below). They argue similarly as to which stage is considered "Siduk," where the dough is not only Asur b'Hana'ah but the person who eats it is punished with Kares. (Si'ur is considered inedible ("Chametz Nuksheh"), since the dough has not completed its fermentation, and therefore one who eats it is not punished with Kares.)
(c) Rebbi Meir calls stage 1. (above, (a))"Si'ur" and maintains that it is already leavened but since at this point it is not fit to be eaten, one receives Malkus for eating it, instead of Kares. He calls stage 2. "Siduk," which *is* punishable by Kares. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that stage 1. is still Matzah mid'Oraisa, and is prohibited only mid'Rabanan. He calls stage 2. "Si'ur" and maintains that it must be destroyed before Pesach but a person who eats it is exempt from Kares or Malkus. Stage 3., however, is termed "Siduk," which is punishable by Kares.

3) [line 7] SI'UR D'MAN - according to which Tana do we define the term "Si'ur"?
4) [line 7] D'REBBI MEIR - according to Rebbi Meir (when it becomes pale)
5) [line 7] L'REBBI YEHUDAH MATZA MA'ALYA HI - according to Rebbi Yehudah, this stage is still considered pure Matzah

6) [line 8] D'REBBI YEHUDAH - according to Rebbi Yehudah (when it develops thin cracks on its surface, which look like locusts' antennae)

7) [line 9] MID'LAKI ALEI, CHAEMTZ HU - since a person who eats it receives Malkus, it must be Chametz

8) [line 12] CHALUT - boiled, scalded
9) [line 12] (REVICHAH) [REVUCHAH] - unleavened loaves made of boiled flour
10) [line 15] IY BA'I (REVICHAH) [REVUCHAH] LAISI - if he wants to make the Minchah from boiled flour, he may

11) [line 17] L'MEIKAM GAVRA B'LAV B'ALMA - to prohibit a person from eating it, but eating it would only incur Malkus, since it is only a negative prohibition (and is not liable to Kares)

12) [line 18] V'IFUSULEI LO MIFSELA - and the Minchah will not be invalidated (and, as such, we still need a source that shows that a Minchah that is made from Chametz is invalidated)

13) [line 21] SHE'NILOSHON B'FOSHRIN - that is kneaded in warm water (which is best for baking, but causes dough to become Chametz quickly)

14) [line 22] U'MESHAMRAN SHE'LO YACHMITZU - and we must guard them so that they do not become Chametz

15) [line 24] "... MATZAH SIHEYEH." - "... it shall be Matzah" (Vayikra 2:5)
16) [line 24] HACHAYEI - (lit. keep it alive) guard it so that it does not become Chametz
17) [line 24] V'HA AFIKTEI L'AKEV - but we have already used this word, "Siheyeh," l'Akev (to show that a Minchah that is made from Chametz is invalidated)

18) [line 28] ASIRI - tenth [genration]
19) [line 29] EZRA - Ezra ha'Sofer, the leader of the generation that returned from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael after the first exile (around the year 3390). He was a prophet (identified as the prophet Mal'achi -- Megilah 15a) and he became the first Kohen Gadol of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

20) [line 29] KAI A'BAVA - is waiting at the gate
21) [line 29] MAI KULEI HAI? - What is the reason for all of this (listing his ancestors)?

22) [line 30] BAR ORIYAN - a Torah scholar
23) [line 30] YA'I - it is very good, pleasant
24) [line 30] BAR AVAHAN - a person who has great ancestors
25) [line 31] EISHA TEICHLEI - (a) let him be consumed by fire; (b) according to the Girsa *IMEI* TEICHLEI - his mother should have miscarried him (MAHARSHA) (since he has not taken the trouble to learn Torah like his ancestors)

26) [line 33] LEI'OL V'LEISEI - let him come up and come in
27) [line 33] HAVAH ACHIRA DA'ATEI - he was in a bad mood
28) [line 34] "AMART LA'SH-M, HASH-M ATAH, TOVASI BAL ALECHA." - "You (Keneses Yisrael, the spiritual counterpart of the people of Yisrael) said about HaSh-m, 'You are [the only] G-d,' but I do not credit you for that." (Tehilim 16:2)

29) [line 36] HACHAZEK LI TOVAH - give me the credit
30) [line 36] SHE'HODATICHA BA'OLAM - that I proclaimed [that] You are [the only G-d] in the universe

31) [line 38] "LI'KEDOSHIM ASHER BA'ARETZ HEMAH, V'ADIREI KOL CHEFTZI VAM." - "For the sake of the holy ones who are [buried] in the ground, and the mighty ones, all of My desire is in them." (Tehilim 16:3)

32) [line 39] KEIVAN D'SHAM'EI D'KA'AMAR ADIR - as soon as Rebbi Ezra heard Rebbi Pereida mention the word ["Adirei", which is related to the word,] "Adir"

33a) [line 40] YAVO ADIR - The Mighty One shall come (HaSh-m, who is called mighty -- Tehilim 93:4)
b) [line 40] V'YIFRA LA'ADIRIM - and avenge the mighty ones (Yisrael, who are called mighty -- Tehilim 16:3)
c) [line 40] ME'ADIRIM - from the mighty ones (the Egyptians, who are called mighty -- Shemos 15:10 -- see SEFORNO)
d) [line 40] BA'ADIRIM - with mighty [waters] (the waters are called mighty -- Tehilim 93:4)

34a) [line 44] YAVO YEDID BEN YEDID - The beloved one (Shlomo ha'Melech, who is called "Yedidyah" -- Shmuel II 12:25, see also verse 24), son of the beloved one (Avraham Avinu, who is called HaSh-m's beloved -- Yirmeyahu 11:15)
b) [line 44] V'YIVNEH YEDID - and he shall build [the Beis ha'Mikdash] (which is called "Yedid" -- Tehilim 84:2)
c) [line 44] LI'YEDID - for the Beloved One (HaSh-m, who is called "my Beloved One" -- Yeshayah 5:1)
d) [line 44] B'CHELKO SHEL YEDID - in the portion of the beloved one (the tribe of Binyamin, who is called "Yedid HaSh-m" -- Devarim 33:12)
e) [line 44] V'YISKAPRU BO YEDIDIM - and the beloved ones (Benei Yisrael, who are called Yedidim -- Yirmeyahu 12:7) should receive atonement through it

35) [last line] "VA'YISHLACH B'YAD NASAN HA'NAVI, VA'YIKRA ES SHEMO YEDIDYAH, BA'AVUR HASH-M" - "And he sent word through Nasan, the prophet, and he called him Yedidyah, because of HaSh-m." (Shmuel II 12:25)


36) [line 1] "MEH LI'YDIDI B'VEISI..." - "What is my beloved one doing in my house?" (Yirmeyahu 11:15) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to Avraham Avinu.

37) [line 3] "MAH YEDIDOS MISHKENOSECHA..." - "How beloved are your tents..." (Tehilim 84:2) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to the Beis ha'Mikdash.

38) [line 4] "ASHIRAH NA LI'YDIDI..." - "I will sing about my Beloved One..." (Yeshayah 5:1) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to HaSh-m.

39) [line 7] "... NASATI ES YEDIDUS NAFSHI B'CHAF OIVEHA." - "... I have delivered the beloved of My soul into the hand of her enemy." (Yirmeyahu 12:7) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to Benei Yisrael.

40) [line 21] AL ISKEI VENI - with regard to the matter of my son (i.e. sons, many of whom were killed and many of them were sent to exile)

41) [line 23] "ASOSAH HA'MEZIMASAH" - "she (i.e. the nation) intentionally schemed [to sin]" (Yirmeyahu 11:15)

42) [line 23] MI'UTAN - the minority of them
43) [line 24] "HA'RABIM" - the many (Yirmeyahu 11:15)
44) [line 25] "U'VESAR KODESH YA'AVRU ME'ALAYICH" - "and the holy flesh they (i.e. you) have passed away from you" (Yirmeyahu 11:15) - The "holy flesh" refers to the Mitzvah of Bris Milah. The verse accuses the people of either being "Moshech b'Milasam" (pulling the flesh over the place of the Bris Milah, to hide it) or of stopping to perform Milah entirely.

45) [line 26] HIMTANTA - if You had waited
46) [line 27] "KI RA'ASEICHI, AZ TA'ALOZI" - "for you have done bad, when you rejoice" (Yirmeyahu 11:15) - Even when the times became better, with less suffering, they still did not repent. Just the opposite - they sinned even more.

47) [line 30] "ZAYIS RA'ANAN YEFEH FERI SO'AR, KARA HASH-M SHEMEICH..." - "'A leafy olive tree, with beautiful, quality fruit,' has HaSh-m called you." (Yirmeyahu 11:16)

48) [line 31] ACHARISO V'SOFO - (a) it only bears fruit after having been planted for many years (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) its fruits do not ripen little by little, but rather together, all of a sudden, at the end of the growing season (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

49) [line 32] ACHARISAN B'SOFAN - they will be redeemed after many years of suffering, all together, all of a sudden

50) [line 32] "L'KOL HAMULAH GEDOLAH HITZIS ESH ALEHA, V'RA'U DALIYOSAV" - "to the accompaniment of the noise of the great multitude He kindled fire on it, and ruined its branches" (Yirmeyahu 11:16)

51) [line 34] L'KOL MILEIHEN SHEL MERAGLIM - because of the words of the spies in the desert (Bamidbar 13:27-29, 31-33)

52) [line 35] NISRO'A'U DALIYOSEIHEN - (lit. its branches were ruined) their pride was smashed

53) [line 37] "[VEHA'ANASHIM ASHER ALU IMO AMRU,'LO NUCHAL LA'ALOS EL HA'AM;] KI CHAZAK HU MIMENU!'" - "[But the men who went up with him said 'We are not able to fight (lit. go up) against the people;] for they are stronger than we [are]!'" (Bamidbar 13:31) - The word "Mimenu" can also be translated as, "than Him!"

54a) [line 38] (AL TIKREI MIMENU ELA MINENU) - (RASHI to Sotah 35a omits this phrase, since there is no difference in the pronunciation of the word "Mimenu" whether it refers to the people (first person) or to HaSh-m (third person); see YOSEF DA'AS for various other opinions.)

55) [line 38] KIV'YACHOL - as if it were possible [to claim that anything is stronger than HaSh-m] (RASHI to Yoma 3b DH kiv'Yachol, 2nd explanation; this is the common usage of the word kiv'Yachol in the Gemara)

56) [line 40] V'CHAMALTI - and I had mercy on them (when the letter "Heh" of "Hamulah" is interchanged with the letter "Ches," it is reminiscent of the word "Chemlah," "mercy")

57) [line 41] YISHTA'ABDU - they should be subjugated
58) [line 41] K'SHI'UR ARBA MALCHIYOS - (a) like the length of time of the four kingdoms [that subjugated Benei Yisrael]; (b) according to the Girsa "K'SHI'UR *MALCHUS MITZRAYIM*" - like the length of time that the kingdom of Egypt subjugated them (either four hundred years, as the verse states (Bereishis 15:13), or two hundred ten years, as the Rabanan interpret -- Nedarim 32a)

59) [line 42] MAI D'FASIK LAH - the amount of time that was allotted for it
60) [line 43] B'VAS ACHAS - at the same time
61) [line 44] EIN ALAV NOSHRIN - its leaves do not fall out
62) [line 45] EIN LAHEM BETEILAH OLAMIS - they do not ever have an end
63) [line 47] KESISAH - crushing
64) [line 47] YISURIN - suffering
65) [line 49] AVAH - thick (with little water)
66) [line 49] YESEIRAH MIDAS HA'ISARON - the amount of flour will be more than one Isaron

67) [line 49] RAKAH - soft (with much water)
68) [line 50] KI KA CHAYIL, L'ISARON KA CHAYIL - when he measures, he uses an Isaron measure to measure it (i.e. what is the difference?)

69) [line 51] LI'CHEMOS SHE'HEN HAYESAH MESHA'ARINAN - they would reckon according to the amount of flour that was originally measured, before the sourdough was added

70) [line 51] V'LISHKOL PURTA - and take out a little flour
71) [line 51] LICHAMTZEI ME'AVRAI - and leaven it outside of the measure
72) [last line] V'LEISEI V'NILOSHEI BAHADEI - and then bring it back and knead it (the fermented piece) with it (the remainder of the flour in the measure)

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