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Menachos 54

1) [line 1] B'TAPUCHIM - with [fermented] apples (or the fermented juice of apples)

2) [line 3] TAPU'ACH SHE'RISKO - an apple [of Terumah] that was crushed
3) [line 4] CHIMTZAH - it leavened it
4) [line 7] NUKSHEH - Chametz that is spoiled and is not fit for human consumption (barely edible - Magen Avraham, Mishnah Berurah 442:2)

5) [line 7] EIN LECHA HA'KASHEH LI'KEMITZAH - the is no other Minchah upon which to perform Kemitzah that is as hard [as the Minchas Chotei]

6) [line 8] YOSER MI'MINCHAS CHOTEI - more than the Minchas Chotei
7) [line 9] MEGABLAH V'MAYIM - he kneads it with water
8a) [line 11] KEMOS SHE'HEN MESHA'ARINAN - in the state in which they are now
b) [line 11] LI'CHEMOS SHE'HAYU MESHA'ARINAN - in the state in which they were

9a) [line 14] CHAREIVAH MI'SHEMEN - (lit. dry of oil) without oil
b) [line 14] CHAREIVAH MI'KOL DAVAR - (lit. dry of everything) only flour, without even water

10) [line 15] SHE'NISPACH - that swelled
11) [line 16] SHE'NISMA'ECH - that shrunk

12a) [line 16] MISHTA'ARIN LI'CHEMOS SHE'HEN - are measured according to their state (the Gemara will bring an argument as to how to understand the words of this Mishnah)
b) [line 17] MISHTA'ARIN KEMOS SHE'HEN - they are measured according to the state in which they are now

13) [line 20] TAHOR LESHE'AVAR - ritually pure in the past

14) [line 22] PIGUL
A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam -- see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, *Pigul* Yiheyeh." - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

15) [line 22] NOSAR
(a) If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, *veha'Nosar* Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that *remains* until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11).
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im *Yivaser* mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu." - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).

16) [line 25] TUM'AS PIGUL / TUM'AS NOSAR
The Chachamim decreed (Pesachim 85a) that a k'Beitzah of meat that is Pigul (see above, entry #14) or Nosar (see previous entry) is Metamei the hands of anyone who touches them. They made the decree with regard to Pigul to prevent Kohanim from invalidating Korbanos with thoughts of Pigul in order to cause a loss to the owner of the Korban. They made the decree with regard to Nosar to prompt the Kohanim to eat the Korbanos within the required amount of time so that no meat of the Korbanos becomes Nosar.

17) [line 28] BESAR ZEKENAH - the meat of an old Kosher farm animal (a cow, sheep, etc.)

18) [line 29] TZAMAK - it shriveled
19) [line 31] DEME'IKARA HAVAH BEI - it initially had [the proper size of a k'Beitzah]


20) [line 2] YESH DICHUY B'ISURA / EIN DICHUY B'ISURA - if an object that the Torah prohibits loses certain specifications for that Isur, is it irrevocably disqualified ("Dachuy") for that Isur, or can it again become prohibited at a later date if it regains the specification that it lost? The concept of "Dichuy" (irrevocable disqualification) usually applies to Halachos in the Torah where a particular object is required for a Korban or Mitzvah. Some examples are limbs and blood of the Korbanos which were prepared to be offered on the altar, blood of Kosher birds and wild animals that must be covered with dirt, live animals that were designated for Korbanos, and objects used to perform Mitzvos. Our Gemara discusses whether Dichuy applies to Isurim, prohibitions. If an object shrinks to a size smaller than the required amount for the transgression of a prohibition, has it been irrevocably disqualified from being prohibited, even if it returns to its original size or not?

(a) All objects belong to one of three categories:

  1. Sources of Tum'ah
  2. Objects that can become Tamei
  3. Objects that cannot become Tamei
(b) All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Velad ha'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah, a Sheni makes a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.
(c) Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni. The seven Halachic liquids are listed below, (f).
(d) A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)
(e) Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul."
(f) All *foods* become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
(g) In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

22) [line 5] K'ZAYIS MIN HA'MES
If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, or an object that was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas, see Background to Menachos 27:17) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim." (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(a) A Sheretz (a crawling pest -- see Vayikra 11:29-38 and Background to Menachos 29:25), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
(b) In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it Temei'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.

25) [line 6] K'ZAYIS PIGUL
See above, entry #14.

26) [line 6] K'ZAYIS NOSAR
See above, entry #15.

27) [line 7] K'ZAYIS CHELEV
(a) Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4). The verse states, "Chukas Olam l'Doroseichem b'Chol Moshevoseichem, Kol Chelev v'Chol Dam Lo Socheilu." - "It shall be an everlasting statute for your generations throughout all your settlements, that you eat neither [forbidden] fat nor blood." (Vayikra 3:17).
(b) It is forbidden to eat the Chelev of a Kosher Behemah (farm animal), but it may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah (a Kosher non-farm animal), however, may even be eaten. "Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.
(c) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Chelev b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he sins b'Shogeg (unintentionally) he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). If a person is in doubt whether the fat he ate was Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background to Zevachim 2:6:b).

28) [line 9] TAFCHU - they increased in size
29) [line 11] TORMIN - (This is a borrowed term. At this stage the Gemara assumes that this Tosefta is referring to separating Ma'asros, tithes -- RASHI)

30) [line 11] TE'ENIM - [fresh] figs
31) [line 12] GEROGEROS - dried figs
32) [line 12] B'MINYAN - through a count
33) [line 13] SHE'HEN - (This word should be *SHE'HAYU*)

34) [line 14] MARBEH B'MA'ASROS - a person who designates more than one tenth of his produce as Ma'aser (MA'ASROS)
(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption -- see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5).
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

35a) [line 15] PEIROSAV MESUKANIM - (lit. his fruits are fixed) the requirement of separating Terumos and Ma'asros has been fulfilled such that the person's fruits are now permitted to be eaten as "Chulin"; the Isur of Tevel (see previous entry, (a-b)) has been removed
b) [line 16] MA'ASROSAV MEKULKALIN - (lit. his Ma'asros are ruined) the produce that was separated as Terumos and Ma'asros are mixed with Tevel (untithed produce) and may not be eaten

36) [line 17] SHE'HEN - (This word should be *SHE'HAYU*)
37) [line 19] SHE'HEN - (This word should be *SHE'HAYU*)

38) [line 20] TERUMAH GEDOLAH
See above, entry #34.

39) [line 21] B'AYIN YAFAH - (lit. with a good eye) generously, with good will (To separate one fifth or one tenth of one's produce as Terumah Gedolah is very generous; the Chachamim designate even one fortieth as "Ayin Yafah" -- Terumos 4:3.)

40a) [line 23] SHEBA'MIKTZO'A - from the utensil in which dried figs are made and stored
b) [line 23] SHEBA'KALKALAH - [fresh figs] in the basket

41) [line 24] MAI AVIDTEI? - What is he doing separating one tenth of his produce as Terumah Gedolah? (The Chachamim designate even one fortieth as "Ayin Yafah" -- Terumos 4:3.)

42) [line 25] TERUMAS MA'ASER
See above, entry #34.

43) [line 27] "V'NECHSHAV LACHEM TERUMASCHEM; [KA'DAGAN MIN HA'GOREN, VECHA'MELE'AH MIN HA'YAKEV.]" - "Your gifts shall be considered for you; [like grain from the threshing-floor and like the ripeness (wine) of the wine-collection pit.]" (Bamidbar 18:27)

44a) [line 29] B'OMED - by estimate; without measuring exactly
b) [last line] B'MACHSHAVAH - [Terumah] takes effect through thought (as is derived from the verse, "v'Nechshav Lachem Terumaschem" (Bamidbar 18:27). This is understood in two ways: (a) Terumah takes effect even if it is *not separated physically* from the rest of the produce (e.g. if he labels as Terumah either a specific part, or a portion that will be clarified later (through Bereirah), but leaves it together with the rest of the produce) (RASHI to Bechoros 59a); (b) TOSFOS (Beitzah 13b DH k'Shem) adds that Terumah may be pronounced in one's mind (*rather than verbally*) (see TOSFOS to Bechoros ibid. DH b'Machshavah)

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