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Menachos 57

1) [line 1] GECHALIM - coals
2) [line 2] HIPECH BO - (a) he turned over [the meat, to roast it on the other side]; (b) he stirred up [the coals, turning over the partially burned wood to stoke the fire]

3) [line 10] K'MA'ACHAL BEN DERUSA'I - a food that is one-third cooked (RASHI) or one-half cooked (RAMBAM), which was the way the bandit Ben Derusai, who was always on the run, would eat his food

4) [line 13] K'GROGERES - the size of a dried fig, which is the amount of food that needs to be roasted to make the sinner liable for desecrating the Shabbos

(a) It is prohibited mid'Oraisa to build on Shabbos (Mishnah Shabbos 73a). The Melachah of Boneh (building) includes building structures that are attached to the ground and adding to structures that are attached to the ground.
(b) Included in the prohibition of Boneh is one who makes a hole in wood or in a stone ("Kode'ach").

6) [line 19] D'CHAZU L'TZIRUF - that are fit to combine (carpenters will at times drill two or three small holes in a row and combine them into one wide hole -- RASHI)

7) [line 20] (BAVA) [KACHA] D'AKLIDA - the "tooth" of a key (that can be inserted into a small hole in the lid of a box as a fastener)

8) [line 27] "ASHER TAKRIVU LA'SH-M LO SE'ASEH CHAMETZ" - "that you offer to HaSh-m shall not be made leavened" (Vayikra 2:11) - The assumption of the Gemara is that if one were to read only these words of this verse, then the only object that is prohibited by this verse from leavening is the Kometz, which is offered to HaSh-m.

9) [line 30] TALMUD LOMAR "KOL HA'MINCHAH" - the Torah therefore states, "*Kol ha'Minchah* [Asher Takrivu la'Sh-m Lo Se'aseh Chametz," to indicate that the rest of the Minchah, also, must not be leavened]

10) [line 42] V'HASHTA D'NAFKA LEI MI'"KOL HA'MINCHAH," "ASHER TAKRIVU" LAMAH LI" - and now that we learn that it is prohibited to leaven the entire Minchah, what do we learn from the words "Asher Takrivu" (which had previously singled out the Kometz, but now the Kometz is part of the entire Minchah)? (RASHI)

11) [line 44] MINCHAS NESACHIM
(a) The Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah (flour-offering) that is brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos.
(b) The mixture of flour and olive oil is salted and completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).

12) [last line] LECHEM HA'PANIM
See below, entry #34.

13) [last line] MINCHAS NESACHIM MEI FEIROS HEM - the Minchas Nesachim is made with [oil, which has the status of] fruit juice (the Gemara assumes at this point that the Minchas Nesachim is kneaded without water, only with oil)


14) [line 1] U'MEI PEIROS EIN MACHMITZIN - and fruit juice does not cause flour to become Chametz

15) [line 2] MEGABLAH V'MAYIM - he kneads it with oil
16) [line 3] MIDAS YAVESH HI - it is [measured in] a [measuring utensil for] dry measures

17) [line 4] MIDAS YAVESH LO NISKADSHAH - and the dry measure [utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash] were not consecrated

18) [line 6] KACH HI HATZA'AH SHEL MISHNAH - this is the correct interpretation of the Beraisa [that was quoted on the bottom of Daf 57a] (RASHI)

19) [line 12] "VA'YIMSHACHEM VA'YEKADESH OSAM" - "and he anointed them and he [thereby] consecrated them" (Bamidbar 7:1)

20) [line 13] MIDAS HA'LACH - [a measuring utensil for] liquid measures

21) [line 13] NIMSHACH (MESHICHAH)
(a) After Benei Yisrael constructed the Mishkan in the desert, HaSh-m instructed Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and all of its utensils. Moshe was commanded to make Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) for this purpose. The Shemen ha'Mishchah is the spiced oil that was used for anointing (and thereby consecrating) the Mishkan and its utensils, the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the kings of the House of David and the Kohanim Gedolim.
(b) Our Gemara brings a Beraisa in which the Tana'im argue as to whether all of the utensils of the Mishkan were anointed, and whether they were anointed on the inside only or on the outside as well. (The CHAZON ISH to Menachos 27:11 states that we can conclude that either (a) the inside and outside of the holy utensils were considered like two utensils, or that (b) even though they are considered like one utensil, the anointing could be done with the intention of consecrating only the inside and not the outside.)

22) [line 18] "MI'MOSHVOSEICHEM TAVI'U LECHEM TENUFAH SHTAYIM SHENEI ESRONIM SOLES TIHEYENAH CHAMETZ TE'AFENAH BIKURIM LA'SH-M." - "From your settlements you shall bring bread that shall be waved, two loaves made of two Esronim, they shall be fine flour, baked leavened, first-offerings for HaSh-m." (Vayikra 23:17)

23) [line 26] MISHUM D'LO SHAVU B'MIDAS LACH L'HADADEI - since they do not rule like each other with regard to the consecration of the measuring utensils for liquid measures. (Rebbi Akiva rules that the utensils for liquid measures were consecrated on the inside and on the outside while Rebbi Yonasan rules that they were only consecrated on the inside.)

24) [line 28] BISA - a utensil used to mix the flour and oil or water of the Menachos

25) [line 28] D'LACH HU - that is [a utensil for] liquids (and since the Lechem ha'Panim is kneaded with water in a consecrated utensil, why does Rebbi Akiva rule (Daf 90a) that they are not consecrated until they are arranged on the Golden Table?)

26) [line 29] KATAVLEYA - a hardened sheet of leather
27) [line 30] D'CHAILA B'ISARON D'CHOL - he measured it in an Isaron measure that was not consecrated

28) [line 34] SHAVIK ISARON D'KODESH V'CHAYIL B'ISARON D'CHOL? - would anyone set aside a consecrated Isaron measure and use a non-consecrated one?

29) [line 36] MA'ALEH - to bring up [and burn on the Mizbe'ach]
30) [line 36] BESAR CHATAS UMI'BESAR ASHAM - the meat of the Korban Chatas and the Korban Asham (that is meant to be eaten by the Kohanim in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash)

31a) [line 37] BESAR KODSHEI HA'KODASHIM - the meat of the [other] Kodshei Kodashim, such as the Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur (RASHI)
b) [line 37] KODSHIM KALIM - the meat of the Kodshim Kalim, such as from the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Bechor and Ma'aser Behemah

32) [line 38] MOSAR HA'OMER (OMER)
(a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 2:1:II:c:1).
(b) The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.

33a) [line 38] (UMI'MOSAR SHTEI) [UMI'SHTEI] HA'LECHEM - and from the Shtei ha'Lechem. (There is no concept of *Mosar* Shtei ha'Lechem since the two loaves of the Shtei ha'Lechem are eaten entirely by the Kohanim. In addition, this is the Girsa in the manuscripts, the YALKUT SHIM'ONI and RASHI -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #400)

b) [line 38] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a) sThe Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Tefachim (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10).
(b) In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.

34) [line 38] LECHEM HA'PANIM
The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

35) [line 39] SHEYAREI MENACHOS - the remainder of all [other] Menachos

36a) [line 40] "... KI CHOL SE'OR V'CHOL DEVASH LO SAKTIRU MIMENU ISHEH LA'SH-M." - "[No flour offering, which you shall bring to HaSh-m, shall be made with leaven;] for you shall not burn any sourdough or leavened products, nor any honey or sweetness of fruits, in any fire-offering of HaSh-m." (Vayikra 2:11)

(a) It is prohibited by a Lav of the Torah to offer sourdough, or anything that is leavened, on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 2:11). The same verse prohibits a person from offering honey or any sweetness of fruits.
(b) A person who offers leavened products or honey on the Mizbe'ach receives Malkus, however, the Amora'im argue as to the extent of the prohibition. According to Abaye, even offering the most miniscule amount of sourdough or honey incurs Malkus. According to Rava, since "Ein Haktarah b'Pachos mik'Zayis," - "The burning of items on the Mizbe'ach is not considered a [valid] burning if they measure less than a k'Zayis," the sourdough or honey must be the size of a k'Zayis in order for the transgressor to receive Malkus (Pesachim 43b, Menachos 58a).

37) [line 41] KOL SHE'HU MIMENU LA'ISHIM - all [Korbanos] from which [parts] of them [are burned] on the fires [of the Mizbe'ach]
The Torah requires that certain parts of the Korbanos be offered on the Mizbe'ach. These parts are collectively termed "Eimurim." It is prohibited to offer any other part of the Korban on the Mizbe'ach. This Halachah is learned from Vayikra 2:11.

38) [line 43] YATZ'U SHTEI HA'LECHEM V'LECHEM HA'PANIM SHE'EIN MEHEM LA'ISHIM - the Shtei ha'Lechem (see above, entry #33b) and the Lechem ha'Panim (see above, entry #34) are excluded [from Hagashah (touching the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach with the pan that contains the Minchah) -- Daf 61a] since no part of them is burned on the fires [of the Mizbe'ach] (rather, they are entirely eaten by the Kohanim)

39) [line 45] EIN MI'GUFO LA'ISHIM - no part of them (of their loaves) is burned on the fires [of the Mizbe'ach.] (However, they are termed "Yesh Mehem la'Ishim" since the Kivsei Atzeres are offered with regard to the Shtei ha'Lechem and the Bazichei Levonah are offered with regard to the Lechem ha'Panim.)

40) [line 46] HA'KEVESH - the ramp [of the outer Mizbe'ach]
41) [line 48] "HA'MIZBE'ACH" - see next entry
42) [line 49] "... V'EL HA'MIZBE'ACH LO YA'ALU (L'RATZON) [L'REI'ACH NICHO'ACH.]" - "but they shall not be brought up to the Mizbe'ach [to be burned] as a pleasing offering [to HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 2:12) - Rebbi Yochanan learns from the extra word "v'El" that all of the parts of the Korbanos that are mentioned above may also not be placed on the Kevesh of the Mizbe'ach.

43) [line 50] "... SE'OR... V'[CHOL] DEVASH... KORBAN REISHIS TAKRIVU OSAM..." - "... sourdough or leavened products... and [all] honey or sweetness of fruits... A first-offering shall you offer from them..." (Vayikra 2:11-12)

44) [line 51] OSAM - them (i.e. the prohibition to place those parts of the Korbanos listed above on the Kevesh of the Mizbe'ach only applies to them (Se'or, sourdough or leavened products, and Devash, honey or sweetness of fruits, which are specified in the verse -- Vayikra 2:11)

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