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Menachos 65

1) [line 1] PESACHYAH AL HA'KININ, ZEH MORDECHAI - the official of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash, mentioned in the Mishnah (Shekalim 5:1) as Pesachyah, who was appointed to administrate the offering of the bird Korbenos, is identified by our Gemara as Mordechai

2) [line 2] SHE'POSE'ACH DEVARIM V'DORSHAN - who explains words and interprets them (etymologically)

3) [line 3] YODE'A B'SHIV'IM LASHON - they must know seventy languages (most of the spoken languages of the world -- RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 2:6)

4a) [line 5] BA'ALEI CHOCHMAH - wise men
b) [line 6] BA'ALEI MAR'EH - men of a good (unblemished) appearance
c) [line 6] BA'ALEI KOMAH - men of stature (such that the litigants would
be afraid to lie before them)
d) [line 6] BA'ALEI ZIKNAH - men of advanced age
e) [line 6] BA'ALEI CHESHAFIM - men well-versed in the workings of magic, in order to be able to break any magic spells created by the litigants (RASHI)

5) [line 8] HA'TURGEMAN - an interpreter
6) [line 8] D'HAVAH VAYIL LISHNEI V'DARISH - who was able to mix [different] languages [in his mind, in order] to interpret [the poorly-enunciated words of others]

7) [line 9] "MORDECHAI BILSHAN" - one of the people of Yisrael who came back with Zerubavel from Bavel (Nechemyah 7:7)

8) [line 11] OSIN OSAN KERICHOS - they tie them into (standing) bundles
9) [line 14] B'ESEK GADOL - with much ceremony
10) [line 15] BA HA'SHEMESH? - Has the sun set?
11) [line 15] HIN - yes
12) [line 16] MAGAL (ZO) [ZEH]? - This scythe (or sickle)?
13) [line 17] KUPAH ZO? - This basket?

14) [line 22] BAISUSIM
The Tzedukim and Baisusim were students of Tzadok and Baisos who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).

(a) Megilas Ta'anis was originally composed by a Tana named Chananyah ben Chizkiyah ben Garon (along with students of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel, according to the BEHAG, Hilchos Sofrim), approximately 100 years before the destruction of the Second Temple (see Shabbos 13b). It includes a list of the dates which were set aside as holidays, during the Second Temple period, due to the miraculous salvations and victories that occurred on them. On some of the dates, fasting was forbidden. On others, even delivering a eulogy was prohibited. Some salvations which occurred after the destruction of the Second Temple are recorded in Megilas Ta'anis as well (Rosh Hashanah 19a). These were added by later scholars and edited by Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi, the editor of the Mishnah (see Tosfos there DH Ha). It is apparent from the wording of the Megilas Ta'anis that we have, that certain comments that appear in the Megilah regarding the cause for the celebrations were also added by a later editor.
(b) Megilas Ta'anis was committed to writing in order that these dates not be forgotten. For this reason it is referred to as a "Megilah" as opposed to the Mishnah and Beraisa which were still handed down by word of mouth at that time (Rashi, ibid.). It is written in Aramaic.
(c) According to some Tana'im and Amora'im, shortly after the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis ceased to be celebrated -- with the exception of the holidays of Chanukah and Purim (Rosh ha'Shanah 18b, 19b). The devastation that followed the destruction of the Second Temple served such a crushing blow to the Jewish People that it overshadowed all of the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis.

16) [line 25] V'MIKTZAS'HON D'LO L'MISPED BEHON - and on some of them it is prohibited even to deliver a eulogy

17a) [line 25] ME'REISH YARCHA D'NISAN AD TEMANYA BEI - from Rosh Chodesh Nisan until the eighth of the month
b) [line 26] ITOKAM TEMIDA, D'LO L'MISPED - the Korban Tamid was established (i.e. the Tzedukim (the heretical followers of Tzadok) claimed that an individual could bring a Korban Tamid and their assertion was disproved), one may not even deliver a eulogy on these days

18) [line 27] UMI'TEMANYA BEI V'AD SOF MO'ADA - and from the eighth of the month [of Nisan] until the end of the holiday [of Pesach]
b) [line 28] ITOSAV CHAGA D'SHAVU'AYA D'LO L'MISPED / L'HIS'ANA'AH - the [argument regarding the] festival of Shavu'os was settled (i.e. the Baisusim (the heretical followers of Baisus) claimed that Shavu'os must always fall on a Sunday and their assertion was disproved), one may not even deliver a eulogy on these days; alt. one may not fast on these days

19) [line 30] TZEDUKIM
The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).

20) [line 34] SHE'YIHEYU CHULAN BA'IN MI'TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH - that they should all be brought from the funds from the Terumas ha'Lishkah (see Background to Menachos 46:28a)

21) [line 37] ATZERES ACHAR HA'SHABBOS - Shavu'os [always falls on the day] after Shabbos

22) [line 38] NITPAL LAHEN REBBI YOCHANAN BEN ZAKAI - Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai attended to them [to deal with their erroneous ruling]

23) [line 39] SHOTIM - fools
24) [line 40] SHE'HAYAH MEFATPET KENEGDO - who was being argumentative against him (Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai)

25) [last line] "ACHAD ASAR YOM ME'CHOREV DERECH HAR SE'IR" - "[It takes] eleven days [to walk the distance] from [Mount] Chorev (Har Sinai) [to Kadesh, which is next to Eretz Yisrael] through the mountains of Se'ir." (Devarim 1:2)


26) [line 2] ICHARAN - he held them back
27) [line 8] SHEL REBBI ELIEZER SOFE"R REBBI YEHOSHU'A MO"NEH REBBI YISHMA'EL ME'A"MER REBBI YEHUDAH L'MA"TAH SIMAN - a mnemonic device that stands for the proofs brought by these Tana'im


29) [line 14] SHABBOS BEREISHIS - the day of the week known as Shabbos, which has been the same since the creation of the world, as opposed to the dates, which depend on various calendars

30a) [line 15] MANEH YAMIM V'KADESH CHODESH - count [twenty-nine] days and declare a [new] month
b) [line 17] MANEH YAMIM V'KADESH ATZERES - count [fifty] days and declare [the holiday of] Shavu'os

31a) [line 17] SAMUCH L'VI'ASO NIKAR - it is apparent when its coming is near (the twenty-ninth day of the previous month)
b) [line 17] SAMUCH L'VI'ASO NIKERES - it is apparent when its coming is near (the fiftieth day since the counting that started from the second day of Pesach)

32) [line 19] HEI'ACH TIHEYEH NIKERES MISHE'LEFANEHA? - How is it apparent from beforehand? (in order to get fifty days until the holiday of Shavu'os when it always falls on a Sunday, there are times when you need to start from the third or fourth day of Pesach, etc.)

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