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Menachos 68

1) [line 1] MI'TOCH SHE'LO HUTRAH LO ELA AL YEDEI KITUF - since it is only permitted to pick by hand
It is prohibited to reap the new grain (Chadash) in a normal fashion before the Minchas ha'Omer is offered (Menachos 70a). However, Chazal permitted picking the stalks by hand before the Omer is offered, to prepare the grain for use immediately after it is permitted to do so.

2) [line 4] REICHAYA D'YADA - a hand mill (using a water mill is prohibited)
3) [line 4] AL GABEI NAPAH - sifting was done through the underside of the sieve (i.e. with the sieve turned over) (that is, with a Shinuy, in an unusual manner -- RABEINU GERSHOM)

4) [line 4] BEIS HA'SHELACHIN / HA'SHALCHIN - a field that receives its water from irrigation or a wellspring (usually located on a mountain -- RASHI to Moed Katan 2a)

5) [line 6] LO GODSHIN - it is forbidden to pile the grain in a heap
6a) [line 7] CHADASH BADIL MINEI - a person is not used to eating Chadash, since he has not eaten new grain all year (since after last Pesach)
b) [line 7] CHAMETZ LO BADIL MINEI - a person eats Chametz all through the year

7) [line 14] "KEMACH KALI" TENAN - read the Mishnah as "the Chachamim found the marketplace of Yerushalayim full of flour ground from roasted grain" (which is not edible as is)

8) [line 14] BERUSA HI - it is an "outside," rejected opinion (alt. Bedusa Hi - it is fiction, i.e. a mistake)

9a) [line 15] MI'KALI V'EILACH - from the time that it is roasted
b) [line 15] AD KALI - until it is roasted (e.g. while it is being picked, when it is edible)

10) [line 21] SHE'YEHEI YOM HA'NEF KULO ASUR - that [eating Chadash on] the entire "day of the waving" (the sixteenth of Nisan) should be prohibited

11) [line 23] "AD ETZEM HA'YOM HA'ZEH" - "until that actual day" (Vayikra 23:14) - Rebbi Yehudah interprets this verse to mean that the entire day is prohibited by the Torah.

12) [line 27] HE'IR MIZRACH - sunrise (RASHI)
13) [line 29] "AD (YOM) HAVI'ACHEM" - "until you bring [the Korban ha'Omer]" (Vayikra 23:14)

14) [line 34] L'MITZVAH - as a Mitzvah Min ha'Muvchar, the best possible way to fulfill the Mitzvah, but it is not an obligation [to wait for the Minchas ha'Omer to be offered] but a person will not transgress a negative commandment if he eats Chadash after sunrise, before it is offered (RASHI, TOSFOS)

Until the Minchas ha'Omer is offered, there is a prohibition to eat the new grain of the year (Chadash) (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered. Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered, there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is removed after they are offered (Menachos ibid.).


16) [line 3] ESHTAKAD - last year
17) [line 10] AD ITZUMO SHEL YOM - until the actual day

18) [line 11] AD V'AD BI'CHELAL
The word "Ad," "until," when used in any phrase usually has two possible meanings. It may mean "Ad v'Ad bi'Chelal," "until and including [the target of the phrase]," or "Ad v'Lo Ad biChelal" - "until but not including [the target of the phrase]."

19) [line 19] B'URTA D'SHITSAR NAGHEI SHIVSAR - on the night of (i.e. after) the [day of the] sixteenth, the night of the seventeenth

20) [line 19] LI'SEFEIKAH LO CHAISHINAN - we are not concerned about the "Sefeikah d'Yoma," the uncertainty of the day of the month, which stems from the fact that Rosh Chodesh is set in Eretz Yisrael, and it may take time for the messengers to travel to all Jewish settlements to inform them of the new month. As such, people in Chutz la'Aretz adopted the practice of keeping two days of Yom Tov because of the doubt.

21) [line 20] B'TZAFRA D'SHIVSAR - the morning of the seventeenth [of Nisan]
22) [line 22] AMRAH LI EM - my mother informed me

23) [line 22] B'URTA D'SHIVSAR NAGHEI TAMNEISAR - on the night of (i.e. after) the [day of the] seventeenth, the night of the eighteenth

24) [line 24] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the *Mikra Bikurim*, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought (Menachos 58a).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c) Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkus. They must be returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
(d) According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, at one point in the process of bringing the Bikurim, the owner of the fruits, together with the Kohen, performs Tenufah (see Background to Menachos 60:3) on the basket of Bikurim.

25) [line 24] MINCHAS BEHEMAH - the Minchas Nesachim (see Background to Menachos 57:11) that accompanies many animal Korban

26) [line 27] LO - no (that is not a question - this was said in a disrespectful manner

27) [line 27] LO HUTAR MI'KELALO ETZEL HEDYOT - it is never permitted [to be eaten] by an ordinary person

28) [line 29] TZAHAVU FANAV - his face lit up
29) [line 31] OSO HA'PEREK - that time frame
30) [line 31] PERAS HA'PESACH HAYAH - two weeks before Pesach
31) [line 31] KESHE'ALISI L'ATZERES - when I went up [to Yerushalayim] for Shavu'os

32) [line 33] (NESACHIM) [NISKEI] BIKURIM - a wine libation from the fist fruits of wine [that ripened before the offering of the Mimchas ha'Omer]

33) [line 34] D'HUTAR MI'KELALO ETZEL HEDYOT - since it was permitted [to be eaten] by an ordinary person (negating the general rule)

35) [line 35] KOL SHE'KEN HACHA D'LO ITSAR KELAL - all the more so here, it (the wine libation) was never permitted (since it was never prohibited)

36) [line 35] SEDE"R HANATZ"A GAL"I PI"L SIMAN - a mnemonic device that stands for the Sugyos in which Rami bar Chama poses a question. It stands for:

  1. "Shtei ha'Lechem Mahu she'Yatiru *she'Lo k'Sidran*" (line 36)
  2. "Shtei ha'Lechem, *Hanatzah* Shrayan of Chanatah Sharyan" (Daf 69a, line 3)
  3. "Chitin *shebi'Gelalei* Bakar" (Daf 69a, line 30)
  4. "*Pil* she'Bala Kefifah Mitzris" (Daf 69a, line 42)
37) [line 36] SHE'LO K'SIDRAN - out of order (i.e. if they took root after the Omer but before the Shtei ha'Lechem)

38) [line 37] D'ZAR'INHU - that he planted them (wheat or barley kernels)
39) [line 37] CHALIF ALAIHU - [the Shtei ha'Lechem] passed by them
40) [line 39] "V'IM TAKRIV MINCHAS BIKURIM" - "And when you bring a Minchah that is a first-offering" (Vayikra 2:14)

41a) [line 40] SE'ORIN - barley
b) [line 40] CHITIN - wheat

42a) [line 41] NE'EMAR AVIV B'MITZRAYIM - the verse states the word "Aviv" with regard to Egypt (Shemos 9:31)
b) [line 41] NE'EMAR AVIV L'DOROS - and it states the word "Aviv" with regard to all generations, the Minchas ha'Omer (Vayikra 2:14)

43a) [line 43] MATZINU YACHID SHE'MEVI CHOVASO MIN HA'CHITIN - we find that an individual brings his obligatory Korbanos from Chitin (the Minchas Chotei -- 59:9)
b) [line 43] V'CHOVASO MIN HA'SE'ORIN - and his obligatory Korbanos from Se'orin (the Minchas Sotah -- see Background to Menachos 59:10)

44) [last line] MI SAVRAT BIKURIM L'FEIRA KA AMRINAN - why do you assume the term Bikurim with regard to the Shtei ha'Lechem connotes the first fruits of a *crop* of wheat (such that it will be permitted to bring this year's Omer from wheat from a *different* crop that took root after last year's Omer and before last year's Shtei ha'Lechem)?

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