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Menachos 71

MENACHOS 71 - Dedicated in honor of the 80th Birthday of Jean Turkel Rafalowicz by the Turkel/Linzer Family. Mazal Tov on reaching this milestone. May you be Zocheh to continue to see Nachas from your children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren until 120 years!

1) [line 1] REBBI YOSHIYAH D'DAREI - Rebbi Yoshiyah of his generation; i.e. Rebbi Yoshiyah the Amora (and not Rebbi Yoshiyah the Tana who was also alive at the time; Rebbi Elazar who is mentioned here is Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas, the Amora, and not Rebbi Elazar ben Shamua, the Tana)

2) [line 1] LO SEISIV! A'KAR'ACH! - Do not sit down, [but rather stand] on your feet! (TOSFOS to Nazir 24b DH Amar)

3) [line 3] AVIV - [since the Torah instructs us to bring the Minchas ha'Omer from the barley that is termed] "Aviv," i.e. that which is fully grown, standing in its stalks ("b'Ibeha" - see RASHI to Shemos 9:31), [we can learn that there are other barley (and all other types of) plants that are not fully grown and standing in their stalks, namely, that have rooted but have not as yet grown at all]

4) [line 5] D'AYIL SHELISH - it has grown to one third of its growth
5) [line 6] "ME'HACHEL CHERMESH BA'KAMAH" - "from such time as you begin to put the sickle to the grain" (Devarim 16:9)

6) [line 6] BAR CHERMESH - [since the Torah instructs us to bring the Minchas ha'Omer from the barley that is] ready to be cut by the sickle, [we can learn that there are other barley (and all other types of) plants that are not ready to be cut by the sickle, namely, that have not yet grown to one third of their growth]

7) [line 7] SHACHAS - grain in an early stage of growth, at which point it can be used as animal fodder, e.g. wheat grass

8) [line 8] KAMAH - standing grain
9) [line 9] AGAM - sprouts in an early stage of growth (that cannot even be used for animal fodder), where the head of one sprout meets the root of the next, neighboring sprout (the word "Agam" it similar to the word "Agmon" in the verse, "hala'Chof *k'Agmon* Rosho" - "is it (a fast day) only meant for bending the head like a bulrush (i.e. an outward, superficial display of repentance)?" (Yeshayah 58:5)

10) [line 10] "[V'CHAG HA'KATZIR BIKUREI MA'ASECHA] ASHER TIZRA [BA'SADEH]" - "[And the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors, which you have sown in the field]" (Shemos 23:16)

11) [line 12] SODANI - (a) Talmid Chacham (based upon the verse, "Sod HaSh-m li'Yerei'av" - "the secret of HaSh-m is [revealed] to those who fear Him" -- Tehilim 25:) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) beer maker (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) G-d-fearing person (ARUCH)

12) [line 12] KOTZRIN - it is permitted to reap before the reaping of the Omer (which is reaped on the night of the sixteenth of Nisan)

13) [line 12] BEIS HA'SHELACHIN SHEBA'AMAKIM - a field that receives its water from irrigation or a wellspring, located in a valley, (a) the crops of which will spoil if the owner waits to reap them after the Omer (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the crops of which are poor and unfit to use for the Minchas ha'Omer (Menachos 85a). As such, there is no prohibition against reaping them before the Omer, as our Gemara will explain (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

14) [line 13] LO GODSHIN - it is not permitted to pile the wheat in heaps
15) [line 15] LO MICHU V'YADAM - the Chachamim did not protest against them
16) [line 15] KOTZER L'SHACHAS [U']MA'ACHIL LI'VEHEMTO - one may cut grain in its earliest stage of growth and feed it to his animal

17) [line 19] V'KOTZRIN MIPENEI HA'NETI'OS - (a) and it is permitted to cut the grain that grows next to the *saplings*, which will spoil if the owner does not clear away that grain (which itself is unfit to use for the Minchas ha'Omer (Menachos 85a). As such, there is no prohibition against reaping it before the Omer, as our Gemara will explain) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) and it is permitted to cut the grain that grows among *saplings of grapevines* (that start growing by themselves), lest he transgress the prohibition of Kil'ayim (see Background to Menachos 70:26) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

18) [line 19] BEIS HA'EVEL - and to clear space to sit for the Birkas Rechavah, that is recited after a funeral (BIRKAS RECHAVAH)
After burying a dead relative, others would provide the mourners with refreshments or a meal outside (in the street, "Rechavah"), on their way home from the funeral. During the meal, one of those present would recite a blessing, Birkas Rechavah, ending with Baruch...Menachem Aveilim."

19) [line 21] KERICHOS - small, tied sheaves of grain
20) [line 21] TZEVASIM - (O.F. javeles - untied bunches) untied bunches of grain, the amount that one can grasp in his hand

21a) [line 22] KAMAH - standing grain
b) [line 23] OMARIM - tied bundles of grain

22) [line 26] "... U'KETZARTEM ES KETZIRAH, VA'HAVEISEIM ES OMER... " - "... and you shall reap its [produce fit for] reaping, and you shall bring one Omer..." (Vayikra 23:10)

23) [line 27] "... REISHIS KETZIRCHEM EL HA'KOHEN" - "... of the first reaping of the year to the Kohen." (Vayikra 23:10)

24a) [line 35] MARKIVIN DEKALIM - (O.F. enter - to graft) (a) they would graft a soft branch that sprouted in the previous year onto a fully grown palm tree (RASHI to Pesachim 56a, 1st explanation); (b) they would graft a branch of a male palm tree (that produces fruit) onto a female palm tree (that does not produce fruit) (RASHI to Pesachim 56a, 2nd explanation. However, see TOSFOS YOM TOV, RASHI to Eruvin 28b DH bed'Nischeni and MENACHEM MESHIV NEFESH to Pesachim 55b. According to the TIFERES YISRAEL, the female palm produces no fruit at all, while the male palm produces inferior fruit. When a male branch is grafted onto a female tree, it produces quality fruit.); (c) they would perform an extremely time-bound grafting procedure between the male palm (that produces inferior fruit) and the female palm (that produces successful fruit only after this procedure). If the process was not performed on the appropriate day, the fruits will not be successful. The Mishnah is referring to a case when the appropriate day was Erev Pesach. (ARUCH Erech Nesen)
b) [line 36] KOL HA'YOM - the entire day [of Erev Pesach, where the prohibition against performing Melachah in the morning varies according to custom (Pesachim 50a), but all opinions agree that it is prohibited to perform Melachos in the afternoon]

25) [line 36] KORCHIN ES SHEMA - (lit. they would bind the reading of Keri'as Shema) (a) they would not pause between the verse, "Shema Yisrael," and the next verse, "v'Ahavta." (When saying the first verse, one is obligated to accept upon himself "Ol Malchus Shamayim", the yoke of the Heavenly Kingdom, which requires contemplation) (RASHI to Pesachim 56a DH v'Lo Hayu, TOSFOS here DH v'Korchin, 1st explanation, according to the SHITAH MEKUBETZES #25); (b) they would not say "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso..." in between these verses (RASHI to Pesachim 56a DH Rebbi Yehudah); (c) they *would* say "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso...," but they would say it out loud (RASHI to Pesachim ibid.); (d) they would not pause between the word "Yisrael" and the word "HaSh-m," which seems like they are saying that Yisrael should listen *to* HaSh-m (as opposed to "Listen, Yisrael: HaSh-m, our G-d, HaSh-m is One.") (TOSFOS DH v'Korchin, 2nd explanation); (e) they would run the words of Keri'as Shema together, without the proper pauses in between them (TOSFOS, citing the YERUSHALMI)

26) [line 37] MATIRIN GAMZIYOS SHEL HEKDESH SHEL CHARUV V'SHEL SHIKMAH - they permitted the use of the new branches that had grown on carob and sycomore (or Egyptian fig) trees of Hekdesh

27) [line 38] PORTZIN PERATZOS B'GANOSEIHEN UV'FARDESOSEIHEN - they would break holes in their fences (during the week)

28) [line 38] L'HA'ACHIL NESHER LA'ANIYIM - to let the poor eat the fallen fruits

29) [line 38] BI'SHENEI BATZORES - years of famine brought about by little or no rainfall, when some of the people are satiated and others are hungry (Avos 5:8)

30) [line 39] B'SHABBASOS UV'YAMIM TOVIM - on Shabbasos and Yamim Tovim, about which Chazal decreed that one may not eat fallen fruit lest one come to climb a tree and pick the fruit


31) [line 4] NOSNIN PE'AH L'YEREK - they would separate Pe'ah from vegetables (PE'AH)

(a) The corner, or end, of the harvest of grain must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10).
(b) The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh." - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (that amount that you leave as Pe'ah -- Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow." (Devarim 24:20). Pe'ah does not apply to vegetables, as is explained in the Gemara (Pesachim 56b).

32) [line 5] SAMI MI'KAN - remove from here [from the Beraisa]
33) [line 7] ELU MAFSIKIN L'PE'AH - these [are the natural dividers that] separate [a large field into smaller, separate fields, obligating each one] in Pe'ah

34) [line 7] NACHAL - (a) a swiftly flowing stream (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2); (b) a valley with tough, rocky soil (RASHI)

35) [line 8] SHELULIS - a brook, stream, or collection of water. The Gemara (Bava Kama 61a) defines Shelulis as either a pool that gathers rainwater, or a stream that gives its "booty" ("Shalal") of water to its tributaries.

36) [line 8] DERECH HA'YACHID - a private road, one which is four Amos wide
37) [line 8] DERECH HA'RABIM - a public road, at least 16 Amos wide, intended mostly for traffic of horses and wagons and the like

38) [line 8] SHEVIL HA'RABIM - a public path, intended mostly for walking
39) [line 9] SHEVIL HA'YACHID HA'KAVU'A BI'YEMOS HA'CHAMAH UVI'YEMOS HA'GESHAMIM - a private path that is used during the dry and the rainy seasons

40) [line 10] BUR - a fallow field
41) [line 10] NIR - a plowed field
42) [line 10] ZERA ACHER - a different crop
43) [line 11] KOTZER L'SHACHAS MAFSIK - and cutting a significant space in the middle of a field, down the entire length of the field, as Shachas (see above, entry #7), divides the field into two separate fields

44) [line 12] CHARASH - he plowed [the area that he cut in the middle of his field]

45) [line 18] ACHALAH CHAGAV - locust ate [grain from the top down, in a significant strip in the middle of his field]

46) [line 18] KARSHEMUHA NEMALIM - ants ate [grain at the bottom of the stalks, in a significant strip in the middle of his field]

47) [line 18] SHEVARATHU HA'RU'ACH - the wind blasted [grain in a significant strip in the middle of his field]

48) [line 33] HA'MENAMER SADEH - one who cuts subsequent rows in his field (leaving it looking "spotty")

49) [line 34] SHIYER BO KELACHIM LACHIM - and he left fresh, young stalks
50) [line 37] MENAMER LI'KELAYOS - when he cuts subsequent rows to make roasted grain (food for people)
b) [line 37] MENAMER L'OTZAR LO - when he cuts subsequent rows to store and dry them

51) [line 38] EINI?! - Is it really so?!

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