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Menachos 83

MENACHOS 83 (3 Teves) - the Dafyomi material for today has been dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev Gustman Ztz"L (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim") and his wife, Rebbetzin Sarah Gustman (daughter of Hagaon Rav Meir Bassin, a Dayan in Vilna) in honor of the Yahrzeit of the Rebbetzin. Sponsored by a number of Rav Gustman's Talmidim (Y. Wachtel, M. Starr, S. Ribner, M. Kornfeld).

1) [line 1] ZIVCHEI SHALMEI TZIBUR - public Shelamim offerings, such as the Kivsei Atzeres (see Background to Menachos 78:40)

2) [line 2] "B'KODESH HA'KODASHIM TOCHLENU KOL ZACHAR (BA'KOHANIM) YOCHAL OSO..." - "In the Holy of the Holies shall you eat it, all [of your] males shall eat it..." (Bamidbar 18:10)

3) [line 7] MEKADSHAH B'VALU'A - it causes other items to become consecrated through the absorption of its taste

4) [line 8] EIN SHEFIR V'SHILYA KADOSH BO - the [Eimurim (RASHI to Zevachim 98a) of the] Shefir and Shilya of a Korban Asham are not sanctified. The Shefir is the outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form. The Shilya is commonly translated as the placenta; a more accurate description is the fetal membranes in which the fetus forms, which are attached to the placenta (RASHI to Berachos 4a; TOSFOS to Nidah 18a DH Shilya and elsewhere in the Rishonim). Since the Korban Asham is always a male, it has neither Shefir nor Shilya.

There is an argument as to whether the offspring of animals of Kodshim become themselves sanctified when they emerge from their mother's womb ("b'Havayasan"), or whether they become sanctified as soon as they are formed in the womb ("b'Me'ei Iman").

6) [line 11] MILU'IM - inaugural sacrifices
(a) The first seven days of the Avodah in the Mishkan in the desert were called "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the status of the Kohanim as Divine servants was "filled," coming to its completion (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days started on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.
(b) During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim and all of the parts and the utensils of the Mishkan were smeared with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6). Many Korbanos, called Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered (see below, (c)). Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol during these days, teaching the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).
(c) On the eighth day, Aharon and his sons offered the same Korbanos as on each of the Shiv'asYemei ha'Milu'im. The Korbanos consisted of a bull as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf, a ram as an Olah, another ram as a Korban Shelamim and three types of Matzah: Chalos Matzos, Chalos Lechem Shemen and Rekikim (Vayikra 8:14-36, Menachos 78a). The Chanukas ha'Nesi'im also began on that day. The Nesi'im (princes) of each tribe offered inauguration sacrifices for the twelve days beginning with Rosh Chodesh Nisan (Bamidbar 7:1-88). Nachshon ben Aminadav of the tribe of Yehudah was the first Nasi to contribute the voluntary sacrifices that were offered along with the Milu'im sacrifices of the Kohanim.

7a) [line 12] MOSAREIHEN BI'SEREIFAH - their "remnants" are burned. (This refers to parts of the sacrifices that are left over) (NOSAR)
(a) If any meat of a Korban (or bread of the Lachmei Milu'im) remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, *veha'Nosar* Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that *remains* until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11).
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im *Yivaser* mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu." - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).

b) [line 7] EIN MOSAREIHEN BA'ALEI CHAYIM B'SEFEIFAH - (lit. there were no animals in their remnants that were burned) since no replacement animals were set aside for the Milu'im Korbanos that were offered in the desert, and none of the Korbanos were lost, the Mosar Milu'im did not consist of any animals; hence none were "burned," i.e. put to death (ACHRAYUS)
(a) A person who is obligated to bring a Korban has the option of setting aside other animals as Achrayus ("insurance") for the animal that he intends to bring as his sacrifice, in case the first animal gets lost. (b) If an animal that was set aside as a Korban gets lost and the owner sets aside another as his replacement Korban, and the first animal is subsequently found, the replacement animal is termed the "Mosar" of his Korban.
(c) During the days of the Milu'im in the desert, no animals were set aside as Achrayus for the Milu'im sacrifices and none of the Korbanos were lost; therefore, the Mosar Milu'im did not consist of any animals.

8a) [line 15] MEFAGILIN - (a) a Kohen who has intentions of "Chutz li'Zemano" ("Pigul" -- see Background to Menachos 78:35) with regard to a sacrifice makes the Lechamim and Nesachim that are offered along with the sacrifice also prohibited as Pigul (RASHI); (b) the blood of a sacrifice, about which a Kohen had intentions of Chutz li'Zemano, makes the flesh of the sacrifice prohibited as Pigul (TOSFOS DH Mah Shelamim)
b) [line 15] U'MISPAGLIN - (a) and the sacrifice itself, about which the Kohen had intentions of Chutz li'Zemano, becomes prohibited as Pigul (RASHI); (b) the flesh of the sacrifice, about which the Kohen had intentions of Chutz li'Zemano, becomes prohibited as Pigul (TOSFOS DH Mah Shelamim)

9) [line 16] B'MASNISA TANA MI'SHEMEI D'REBBI AKIVA - it is taught in a Beraisa in the name of Rebbi Akiva

10) [line 20] DI'RECHICHA - it is soft
11) [line 22] BASAR, AGAV D'SHAMEN, KADIR - meat, since it is fatty, [its taste] penetrates (O.F. trestrest)

12) [line 24] BA'YOM - during the day, as the verse states with regard to the Chatas of Yom ha'Kipurim, "Ki *va'Yom* ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem" (Vayikra 16:30)

13) [line 24] B'YADO HA'YEMANIS - [the applications of blood must be performed] with his right hand

14) [line 28] MI'"B'YOM TZAVOSO" NAFKA - it is learned from the verse, "*b'Yom* Tzavoso Es Benei Yisrael l'Hakriv Es Korbeneihem" (Vayikra 7:38)

15) [line 29] KEDI NASVAH - it was mentioned unnecessarily
16) [line 31] KOL MAKOM SHE'NEEMAR ETZBA U'CHEHUNAH EINO ELA YAMIN - every time a verse uses words related to "Etzba" and "Kehunah," it refers to the right hand

17) [line 33] ATZMOSAV MUTARIN - its bones (that do not contain marrow) are permitted (this is the case with all Korbanos; it was written as the Halachah learned from the Korban Asham since there was no other unique Halachah that could be learned from Asham -- RASHI; see RASHI KESAV YAD and TOSFOS)


18a) [line 3] MOSAR HA'PESACH - (a) a person who sets aside money with which to buy a Korban Pesach, and he subsequently finds an animal to buy for *part* of the designated money, the remainder of the money is known as "Mosar ha'Pesach" (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) a person who designated as his Korban Pesach an animal that subsequently got lost. He then designated another animal and found the first one. The extra animal is known as "Mosar ha'Pesach" (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

(a) If an animal was set aside as a Korban Pesach, but was not brought as a Korban Pesach for some reason (e.g. because it was lost on the 14th of Nisan), it is called "Mosar ha'Pesach" and may be offered as a Korban Shelamim. The Mosar ha'Pesach is identical to a Shelamim except that it is eaten only for one day and one night, instead of two days and the intervening night.
(b) If a person who designated as his Korban Pesach an animal that got lost, then designated another animal and subsequently found the first one, the extra animal is also offered as a Korban Shelamim.
(c) Some say that in order to become like a Shelamim the Mosar ha'Pesach needs an Akirah (TOSFOS to Pesachim 60b DH b'She'ar). If the animal is slaughtered *without* Akirah, it is still considered a full-fledged Pesach and is Pasul since it was not slaughtered during its proper time (see Pesachim 60b). The act of slaughtering the animal she'Lo Lishmah (e.g. slaughtering it for the sake of offering a Shelamim or Olah), however, qualifies as an Akirah and makes the animal into a Shelamim.

19a) [line 11] "[IM] KEVES [HU MAKRIV ES KORBANO...]" - "[If he offers as his Korban Shelamim] a sheep" (Vayikra 3:7)
b) [line 11] L'RABOS ES HA'PESACH L'ALYAH - to teach that if a sheep is brought as a Korban Pesach, the Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach -- see Background to Menachos 74:20) include the Alyah, the fat tail of the sheep (the Pesach is roasted in its entirety; if certain internal organs and fats are burned on the Mizbe'ach, it is not noticeable. The Alyah, however, is an external organ, and it is noticeable when it is missing. As such, the seemingly extra word of the verse is needed to teach that the Alyah is burned on the Mizbe'ach.)

20) [line 12] PESACH SHE'AVRAH SHENASO - an animal that was designated as a Korban Pesach that became older than one year old

21) [line 13] SHELAMIM HA'BA'IM MACHMAS PESACH - (a) a Mosar ha'Pesach (RASHI); (b) the Chagigas Arba'ah Asar (see Background to Zevachim 99:30a) (RASHI KESAV YAD); (c) Temuras ha'Pesach (see Background to Menachos 79:21b) (TOSFOS, citing RASHI to Pesachim 96b)

22) [line 14] SHE'YITA'ANU SEMICHAH U'NESACHIM U'TENUFAS CHAZEH VA'SHOK - that it requires Semichah, Nesachim and waving of the chest and right hind leg, as in all Korbenos Shelamim (see Background to Menachos 61:4a)

23) [line 16] TELASA KERA'EI KESIV - [these] three verses are written [to teach the following Halachos]

24a) [line 17] AVRAH ZEMANO - its time passed (the fourteenth of Nisan, in the afternoon, the time for slaughtering the Korban Pesach)
b) [line 17] AVRAH SHENASO - its year passed (it became older than one year old)

25) [line 22] D'CHAZI L'PESACH SHENI - it is still fit to bring as a Pesach Sheni (PESACH SHENI)
If the Kohanim, the Klei Shares, or the majority of the Jewish people are Tamei Mes on the 14th day of Nisan, the Korban Pesach is brought b'Tum'ah. Otherwise, those who are Tahor bring it b'Taharah on the 14th of Nisan, while those individuals who are Tamei bring their Korban the following month on Pesach Sheni (the 14th day of Iyar) and eat it the following evening.

26) [line 22] EIMA LO - we may say that it would not be brought as a Korban Shelamim


27) [line 28] KORBENOS HA'TZIBUR - that is, Menachos (RASHI)
28a) [line 28] HA'ARETZ - Eretz Yisrael
b) [line 29] CHUTZAH LA'ARETZ - any lands other than Eretz Yisrael

29a) [line 29] CHADASH
Until the Minchas ha'Omer is offered, there is a prohibition to eat the new grain of the year (Chadash) (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered. Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered, there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is removed after they are offered (Menachos ibid.).

b) [line 29] YASHAN - grain from previous years

30) [line 30] OMER
(a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b) The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.

31) [line 30] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a) The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Tefachim (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10).
(b) In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 60:3) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.

32) [line 32] MACHNIS V'ZITCHA ALFA L'SOLES - Machnis and Zitcha were the best places from which to reap the grain for Menachos. ("Alpha" is the first letter of the Greek alphabet)

33) [line 33] SHENIYAH LAHEN AFORIYIM BA'BIK'AH - the second-best place is Aforiyim in the [Beis She'an] valley

34) [line 34] KOL HA'ARATZOS HAYU KESHEIROS - all of the regions of Eretz Yisrael were fit [to have the grain for the Omer or the Shtei ha'Lechem brought from them]

35) [line 38] "TAKRIV ES MINCHAS BIKURECHA" - "you shall offer the your Minchah that is a first-offering" (Vayikra 2:14)

36) [line 39] MIN HA'ALIYAH - from the attic (i.e. the storehouse)
37) [line 40] "MI'MOSHVOSEICHEM TAVI'U [LECHEM TENUFAH SHTAYIM SHENEI ESRONIM SOLES TIHEYENAH CHAMETZ TE'AFENAH BIKURIM LA'SH-M.]" - "From your settlements you shall bring [bread that shall be waved, two loaves made of two Esronim, they shall be fine flour, baked leavened, first-offerings for HaSh-m.]" (Vayikra 23:17)

38) [line 41] HA AFIKTEI? - But is has already been used [to teach that it is brought from the grain of Eretz Yisrael]

39) [line 43] SHE'KOL SHE'ATAH MEVI MI'MAKOM ACHER HAREI HU KA'ZEH - that all (i.e. other) Lechamim that you bring from elsewhere (i.e. the Lachmei Todah) shall be like this (like the Shtei ha'lechem, which were one Isaron per loaf. The Chametz loaves of the Lachmei Todah were likewise one Isaron per loaf (Menachos 77b).

40) [line 45] REISHIS - the word "Reishis," which is written with regard to the Minchas ha'Omer ("Reishis Ketzirchem El ha'Kohen" - "of the first reaping of the year to the Kohen." -- Vayikra 23:10) and with regard to the Shtei ha'Lechem ("Korban Reishis Takrivu Osam" - "A first-offering shall you offer from them" (Vayikra 2:11-12)

41) [line 46] CHADASHAH - the word "Chadashah," which is written with regard to the Shtei ha'Lchem ("Minchah Chadashah la'Sh-m" - "a new Minchah offering for HaSh-m" -- Vayikra 23:16)

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