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Menachos 84

1) [line 5] "KI SAVO'U EL HA'ARETZ" - "When you come to the land" (Vayikra 23:9)

(a) See Background to Menachos 83:30a.
(b) There is an argument among the Tana'im and Amora'im as to whether or not the prohibition of Chadash applies outside of Eretz Yisrael as well. (This argument also extends to the Rishonim, Achronim and Poskim -- see MINCHAS CHINUCH 303:1).

b) [line 8] "MOSHVOSEICHEM," KOL MAKOM SHE'ATEM YOSHVIM MASHMA - the word "Moshvoseichem," ["your settlements" (Vayikra 23:14), in the verse dealing with the Mitzvah of Chadash,] implies [that this Mitzvah applies to] any place that you settle (including Chutz la'Aretz)

3) [line 9] ZEMAN BI'AH HI - the time that you come [into Eretz Yisrael]

4) [line 11] SHOMREI SEFICHIN BI'SHEVI'IS - those who guard the [barley or wheat] plants that grow by themselves during the Shevi'is year [in order for there to be barley or wheat available for the Omer offering or the Shtei ha'Lechem] (SHEVI'IS / SEFICHIN)
(a) SEFICHIN - Sefichin are plants that grow by themselves in the Shemitah year. The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. They must be considered ownerless. Anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. 3. The Torah also requires that they be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.
(b) The word "Sefichim" means "aftergrowth," i.e. that they grew by themselves and were not planted for harvesting this year. According to the Torah, Sefichim may be eaten. The Rabanan decreed that Sefichin of vegetables and grains not be eaten, since the people might plant their fields and claim that the produce grew by itself.

5) [line 12] TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH - the money that was collected to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash
See Background to Menachos 46:28a.

6) [line 15] "L'OCHLAH" V'LO LI'SEREIFAH - the verse states, "l'Ochlah" - "to be eaten" (Vayikra 25:6). The produce of Shevi'is is ours to be eaten, from which Chazal infer, "To be eaten, but not to be burned." Rami bar Chama is asking how it is possible to bring a Minchas ha'Omer from the Sefichin of Shevi'is if the Kometz will be burned upon the Mizbe'ach.

7a) [line 15] RACHMANA AMAR LACH "L'DOROSEICHEM" - the Torah (lit. the Merciful One) writes the word "l'Dorosiechem" - "for all of your generations,"
b) [line 16] V'AT AMART TIBATEL?! - and you say it should be canceled?!

8) [line 18] MID'ESHTAKAD - from last year's crop
9) [line 18] BA'INA "KARMEL" V'LEIKA - we need to fulfill the word of the verse "Karmel," which connotes fresh, new grain, and the crops of last year will not be fresh

10) [line 18] V'LAISI MI'KARMEL D'ESHTAKAD - but perhaps we should bring last year's Karmel (that was reaped and stored)

11) [line 21] REBBI YOCHANAN AMAR "KARMEL TAKRIV" - Rebbi Yochanan rules that the reason we do not offer grain from last year's crop is that the verse implies that we should *offer* fresh grain

12) [line 22] V'LO SOF (KETZIRCHA) [KETZIRCHEM] - and not the end of your reaping (this phrase implies the seemingly impossible task of leaving stalks in the field and reaping them after they were standing for more than one year. As such it will be the last reaping of last year's crop.)

13) [line 23] "V'IM TAKRIV MINCHAS BIKURIM [LA'SH-M, AVIV, KALUY BA'ESH, GERES KARMEL, TAKRIV ES MINCHAS BIKURECHA.]" - "And when you bring a Minchah that is a first-offering [to HaSh-m, standing in its stalks (fully grown), roasted in fire, cracked, from fresh new grain, you shall offer your Minchah that is a first-offering.]" (Vayikra 2:14)

14a) [line 25] SE'ORIM - barley
b) [line 26] CHITIN - wheat

15a) [line 27] NE'EMAR AVIV B'MITZRAYIM - the verse states the word "Aviv" with regard to Egypt (Shemos 9:31)
b) [line 27] NE'EMAR AVIV L'DOROS - and it states the word "Aviv" with regard to all generations, the Minchas ha'Omer (Vayikra 2:14)

16a) [line 30] MATZINU YACHID SHE'MEVI CHOVASO MIN HA'CHITIN - we find that an individual brings his obligatory Korban from Chitin (the Minchas Chotei -- 59:9)
b) [line 31] U'MEVI CHOVASO MIN HA'SE'ORIN - and he brings his obligatory Korban from Se'orin (the Minchas Sotah -- see Background to Menachos 72:31)

17) [line 36] ALMA MISHUM BIKURIM HU - it seems that the problem with bringing the Omer from wheat is that the Shtei ha'Lechem will not be a first-offering (from the newly-reaped wheat, which the verse requires -- Vayikra 23:17)

18) [last line] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the *Mikra Bikurim*, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought (Menachos 58a).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c) Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkus. They must be returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
(d) According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, at one point in the process of bringing the Bikurim, the owner of the fruits, together with the Kohen, performs Tenufah (see Background to Menachos 60:3) on the basket of Bikurim.

19) [last line] SHIV'AS HA'MININ - the seven species [with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates]


20) [line 1] PEIROS SHEBA'AMAKIM - fruit from the valleys
21) [line 4] "KORBAN REISHIS" - "a first offering" (Vayikra 2:12) - These words apply to the Shtei ha'Lechem.

22) [line 4] SHE'TEHEI REISHIS L'CHOL HA'MENACHOS - that it (the Shtei ha'Lechem) should be the first of all of the Menachos

23) [line 7] CHADASHAH SHEL SE'ORIM MINAYIN? - From where do we learn that the Minchas ha'Omer must be the first Minchah of the year to be offered from the new grain of barley? (i.e. that a Minchas Sotah offered before the Omer must be brought from Yashan, last year's crop)

24) [line 8] CHADASHAH CHADASHAH - the two times that the verse use the word "Chadashah" to refer to the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16 and Bamidbar 28:26)

25) [line 10] U'MINAYIN SHE'TEHEI KODEMES L'VIKURIM? - And from where do we learn that the Shtei ha'Lechem must precede the bringing of Bikurim (see above, entry #18)

26) [line 11] "V'CHAG SHAVU'OS TA'ASEH LECHA, BIKUREI KETZIR CHITIM" - "And the Festival of Shavu'os you shall make for yourself, [at] the beginning of the wheat harvest" (Shemos 34:22)

27) [line 13] "V'CHAG HA'KATZIR BIKUREI MA'ASECHA ASHER TIZRA BA'SADEH" - "And the Festival of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors, which you have sown in the field" (Shemos 23:16) - This verse is referring to Shavu'os.

28) [line 15] ALU ME'ELEIHEN - they came up (grew) by themselves
29) [line 17] GAG - the roof
30) [line 17] CHURVAH - a destroyed building (in which the roof has collapsed, leaving an open area usually used for planting)

31) [line 17] ATZITZ - a flowerpot
32) [line 18] SEFINAH - a boat
33) [line 18] "BIKUREI KOL ASHER B'ARTZAM" - "the first fruits of all that is in their land" (Bamidbar 18:13)

34) [line 19] NESACHIM - wine libations (that was produced from grapes that ripened before the offering of the Minchas ha'Omer)

35) [line 19] PEIROS HA'ILAN - fruits
36) [line 21] "B'ASPECHA ES MA'ASECHA MIN HA'SADEH" - "when you gather [the fruits of] your labors from the field" (Shemos 23:16)

37) [line 26] "KOL TAHOR B'VEISCHA (YOCHAL OSO) [YOCHALENU]" - "all who are ritually pure in your household may eat it" (Bamidbar 18:13) - This verse permits women and slaves to eat certain Matnos Kehunah.

38) [line 28] "LECHA YIHEYEH" - "for you they shall be" (Bamidbar 18:13) - This is part of the verse of the previous entry; it permits Aharon ha'Kohen and his sons to eat certain Matnos Kehunah

(a) The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Todah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach ("Shenayim she'Hen Arba"). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(b) An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:

  1. Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
  2. Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
  3. Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
  4. Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c) One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as *Terumas Lachmei Todah*.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.

40) [line 30] BI'PELUGTA - [the argument of Ula (line 2) and Rav Acha bar Huna as to whether Bikurim brought from fruit of the hills and the valleys become valid Bikurim (Kidesh or not),] is also an argument [of Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish]

41) [line 31] NA'ASEH KA'KACHUSH B'KODSHIM - it is like Kachush, a weak animal, of Kodshim, where the animal does become Hekdesh b'Di'eved (it is prohibited l'Chatchilah because of "Hakrivehu Na l'Fechasecha" -- see RASHI to Menachos 64a DH Afilu Nimtzeis)

42a) [line 32] REBBI YOCHANAN CHAZA'I (B'CHALOM) B'CHELMA - I saw Rebbi Yochanan in my dream last night
b) [line 33] MILSA MA'ALYESA AMINA - [which is an omen that today] I will say something with good reasoning

43) [line 35] NE'EMAR L'HALAN ERETZ - it states there "Eretz [Chitah u'Se'orah]" (Devarim 8:8)

44a) [line 35] MAH L'HALAN SHEVACH HA'ARETZ - just as there the verse refers to the praise of Eretz Yisrael, since those seven fruits are the most praiseworthy of all fruits
b) [line 36] AF KAN SHEVACH HA'ARETZ - also here the verse must refer to the praise of Eretz Yisrael, and as such, it is permitted to bring fruit from the hills, as long as they are choice fruits

45a) [line 37] MEVI V'KOREI - he brings Bikurim and recites the "Mikra Bikurim" (see above, entry #18)
b) [line 38] MEVI V'EINO KOREI he brings Bikurim but does not recite the "Mikra Bikurim"

46) [line 38] GAG DI'ME'ARAH - the roof of a cave, which is ground to all intents and purposes

47) [line 39] CHURVAH AVUDAH - a cultivated Churvah
48) [line 40] NEKUVAH - a flowerpot with a hole in it (that derives nourishment from the ground, and may be termed "me'Artzecha")

49) [last line] SEFINAH SHEL CHERES - a boat made out of earthenware

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