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Menachos 86

MENACHOS 86 - has been dedicated to the memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence, and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father, and he is sorely missed by his family.

1) [line 2] SERAF - a thin secretion of the olive
2) [line 4] MATBAL BEI - he dips [his bread] into it
3) [line 4] V'SIMANACH ASHIRIM MEKAMTZIN - and the mnemonic device that you may use to remember which sage considers the Anpaktan oil and which sage does not, is "The rich squeeze [these undeveloped olives for oil]," indicating that Rebbi Shimon bar Rabbi, who was very wealthy, used the Anpaktan as oil. (This is actually a play on words, since the phrase could be interpreted as, "The rich are frugal," indicating that the rich may even make due with inexpensive substitutes such as the Anpaktan oil.)

4) [line 5] "SHISHAH CHODASHIM B'SHEMEN HA'MOR" - "Six months spent anointing themselves with Mor oil" (Esther 2:12) - The Gemara brings an argument as to the meaning of Shemen ha'Mor -- see next two entries.

5) [line 7] SATACHTA - (O.F. balsme) balsam oil
6) [line 7] SHEMEN ZAYIS SHE'LO HEVI SHELISH - olive oil made from olives that have only grown to one third of their estimated final size

7) [line 9] ANPEKINON - this is Anpaktan of the Mishnah (RASHI, RASHI KESAV YAD). According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is olive oil made from olives that have only grown to one third of their estimated final size. The Mishnah (Menachos 85b) states that l'Chatchilah it may not be used for Menachos.

8) [line 10] MESHIR ES HA'SEI'AR - it removes hair
9) [line 11] ME'ADEN ES HA'BASAR - it rejuvenates the flesh
10) [line 13] SHARUY - (a) olives that fell into water and remained there for a long time (RASHI to the Mishnah 85b, 1st explanation); (b) that were soaked in water in order to make them fit for extracting oil (RASHI ibid., 2nd explanation)

11) [line 13] SHEL SHEMARIM - (O.F. bufet) oil extracted from the dregs of olives
12) [line 17] SHELOSHAH ZEISIM HEN - there are three qualities of olives
13) [line 19] MEGARGERO B'ROSH HA'ZAYIS - (a) one who waits to pick the best olives at the top of his trees until they become fully ripe. "Megargero" refers to the *Gargerim*, "berries" of olives, the fully-ripe fruit (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) one who picks the olives at the top of his trees, which ripen first since the suns shines on them constantly. "Megargero" means *to pick [olives berries]* (RASHI, 2nd explanation, RASHI KESAV YAD)

14) [line 19] KOSESH - he crushes the olives
15a) [line 19] NOSEN L'SOCH HA'SAL - he puts them into the straining basket
b) [line 20] SEVIVOS HA'SAL - around [the sides, higher up on the walls of] the basket

16) [line 21] TO'EN B'KORAH - he places a beam upon them
17) [line 22] TACHAN - he grinds them
18) [line 23] MEGARGERO B'ROSH HA'GAG - (a) one who picks olives and *lays them out on his roof* to ripen and soften in the sun (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) one who picks the olives in the middle of his trees, which do not ripen as fast as the ones at the top of his trees. The words "b'Rosh ha'Gag" just indicate the height of the olives, in a case where the average olive tree grows higher than the average roof (RASHI, 2nd explanation, RASHI KESAV YAD)

19) [line 25] OTNO B'VEIS HA'BAD - one who picks the olives at the bottom of his trees, which ripen last, and places them into a vat in the olive pressing room, where they are squeezed together

20) [line 25] AD SHE'YILKEH - (O.F. blecier - to smack, smash) until their skin softens and their color changes

21) [line 26] MA'ALEHU U'MENAGVO B'ROSH HA'GAG - and he brings them up onto his roof (to dry the secretions that exude from them)

22) [line 29] MEGALGELO - one who waits to pick the best olives at the top of his trees until they become fully ripe. "Megalgelo" means fully-ripe, such as a Beitzah Megulgeles, a hard-boiled egg (RASHI)

23) [line 29] SHEMEN ZAYIS MI'ZEISO - olive oil from the olive, i.e. the verse instructs us to wait until the olives on the trees are fully ripe and full of oil

24) [line 30] KONSO L'VEIS HA'BAD - and he collects them into the olive-pressing room

25) [line 30] TOCHANO B'REICHAYIM - he grinds them in a mill
26) [line 32] PARAK - he unloaded [the olives from the press]
27) [line 34] K'MIN TEMARAH - (a) like dates that are being spread out to dry (RASHI); (b) like a pile of dates, wide at its base and tapered off at the top (RASHI KESAV YAD)

28) [line 34] AD SHE'YAZUVU MEIMAV - until the thin secretions flow off
29) [line 37] LO HAYAH TOCHANO B'REICHAYIM - he would not grind it in a mill [to extract the first oil of the first Zayis]

30) [line 37] KOSESHO B'MACHTESHES - crush it in a mortar
31) [line 44] L'ACHILAH - to be "eaten" (burning the Kometz on the Mizbe'ach)

32) [last line] "ZACH KASIS LA'MA'OR" - "pure, pressed for lighting" (Shemos 27:20)


33) [line 4] NAKI - pure, clean [of dregs]
34) [line 5] YACHOL YEHEI (ZACH) KASIS PASUL L'MENACHOS - since we learned in the Mishnah "Zach Kasis la'Ma'or" and not "Zach Kasis l'Menachos," we might think that the top quality oil (Kasis or Kasush, i.e. oil before the second pressing) must be reserved for Ma'or; for Menachos we should only use oil from olives that were ground

35) [line 6] "V'ISARON SOLES BALUL B'SHEMEN KASIS" - "And one Isaron of fine flour mixed with pressed [olive] oil" (Shemos 29:40)

36) [line 7] MIPNEI HA'CHISACHON - because of savings, economy. Since many Menachos may be offered each day, using Shemen Zach Kasis would be a tremendous expense, as opposed to the Menorah, which only needs three and one half Lugin per day (RASHI KESAV YAD)

37) [line 8] MAI CHISACHON? - Who is concerned with savings? (RASHI KESAV YAD)

38) [line 9] HA'TORAH CHASAH AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL - HaSh-m (lit. the Torah) cares for the money of Yisrael

39) [line 14] "VA'YA'AS LA'BAYIS CHALONEI SHEKUFIM ATUMIM." - "And for the house he made windows wide outside and narrow inside." (Melachim I 6:4)

40) [line 15] SHEKUFIN MI'BIFNIM VA'ATUMIM MI'BACHUTZ - narrow inside and wide outside

41) [line 16] "MI'CHUTZ L'FAROCHES HA'EDUS B'OHEL MO'ED" - "outside of the curtain [which was the partition for the Aron] of testimony in the Tent of the Meeting" (Shemos 24:3)

42) [line 21] L'ORO - (a) by His (HaSh-m's) light; (b) by its (the cloud pillar's) light (TOSFOS to Shabbos 22b DH v'Chi)

43) [line 23] NER MA'ARAVI - the western lamp: (a) according to the opinion that the Menorah's lamps were placed on the north-south axis this refers to the middle lamp, the wick of which was pulled out towards the west (RASHI KESAV YAD); (b) according to the opinion that the Menorah's lamps were placed on the east-west axis this refers to the second lamp from the east, which is just west of the eastern-most lamp (RASHI)

44) [line 24] (KENEGED) [K'MIDAS] CHAVROSEHA - the same measure as the other lamps

45a) [line 24] MIMENAH HAYAH MADLIK - The Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained lit during the time that Benei Yisrael wandered in the desert. The other lamps were lit in the evening from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi.

b) [line 25] U'VAH HAYAH MESAYEM
(a) According to RASHI to Shabbos 22b, this refers to the *Hatavah* (preparation) of the lamps. The Kohen cleaned out the ashes and left-over oil (the process called "Dishun") from the lamps in the morning after they went out. He replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. Since the Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained burning all day, its Hatavah was done last, in the evening, before the lamps were lit again. The Kohen would lift the burning wick or place it in a bowl until he replaced the oil and wick, which he lit from the still-burning wick. He then lit the other lamps from it.
(b) TOSFOS to Shabbos ibid. DH u'Vah, citing Riva, asks that if it was possible to light the other lamps from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi by removing the burning wick from its lamp, the Gemara no longer has a question on Rav. The Mitzvah is neither slighted nor diminished. Tosfos claims that it was impossible to remove the wick without it becoming extinguished. The Kohen would light the other candles from the still-burning Ner ha'Ma'aravi. It was then extinguished, its oil and wick were replaced, and it was lit from the other lamps. Tosfos concludes that the phrase "u'Vah Hayah Mesayem" means that the Ner ha'Ma'aravi was the last lamp of *Hadlakah* (to be lit).

46) [line 26] KEDUCHIM VA'ATULIN - places in Eretz Yisrael known for their wine production. Keduchim (or Keruchayim or Kerusim) is identified with the Arab village Keru'ah on the border of Yehudah and Shomron, on a line that runs from Antipras to the Yerushalayim-Shechem road. Atulin (or Hatulin or Chatulin) is probably in Yehudah in the Chevron hills, which are well-known for their wine-grape production (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 74, 171).

47) [line 27] BEIS RIMAH U'VEIS LAVAN BA'HAR - places in Eretz Yisrael known for their wine production. Beis Rimah was in the hills of Yehudah (there is still an Arab village by that name). Beis Lavan is identified with the Arab village Luban, which is situated on a hill near the ancient Roman road to Antipras, east of Lod (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 39,46).

48) [line 27] KEFAR SIGNA BA'BIK'AH - a place in Eretz Yisrael known for its wine production. There was an Arab village north of Kefar Saba called Sujin, which is near Beis Rimah and Beis Lavan (see previous entry). There were many Jewish settlements in this area during the time of the Mishnah, including Kefar Saba, Antipras, Kefar Ono, Lod and others (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 115-116).

49) [line 31] HALISTIYON - (a) wine made from grapes that became overripe in the sun (RASHI); (b) very sweet wine made from grapes that were intentionally hung in the sun (RASHI KESAV YAD)

50a) [line 32] YASHAN - last year's wine (RASHI KESAV YAD)
b) [line 33] MASOK - (a) naturally sweet (not sun-sweetened) (RASHI and RASHI KESAV YAD, 1st explanation); (b) grape juice or wine that is not yet forty day old (RASHI and RASHI KESAV YAD, 2nd explanation)
c) [line 33] ME'USHAN, MEVUSHAL - wine made from sour grapes that were sweetened by smoking or boiling them (RASHI)

51a) [line 35] DALIYOS - (O.F. treilles - trellises, the lattice-work or poles upon which grapes grow) [the grapes of] the vine-arbors
b) [line 35] RAGLIYOS - (a) grapes that grow on vines that have low supports (RASHI); (b) grapes that grow on vines that lie on the ground (RASHI KESAV YAD)

52) [line 35] HA'KERAMIM HA'AVUDIN - vineyards that are worked, prepared
53) [line 36] LO [HAYU] KONSIN OSO - they did not store the wine
54a) [line 36] CHATZAVIN - [earthenware] barrels
b) [line 37] CHAVIYOS - [earthenware] jugs
55) [last line] KEDEI SHE'YEHEI REICHO NODEF - in order to enhance its bouquet (lit. its fragrance wafts [into the air])

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