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Menachos 87

MENACHOS 87 (7 Teves) - Dedicated by Dr. Josh Daniel of Efrat, Israel, in memory of his brother, Yitzchok Yisroel [ben Refael Noach Yosef] Daniel, on his Yahrzeit.

1) [line 1] KEMACHIN - (O.F. chienes or jeines) a type of mold that grows on the surface of wine

2) [line 1] SHULEHA - from its bottom
3) [line 2] ME'SHELISHAH ME'EMTZA'AH - (a) from the upper third of the barrel (but not from the top layer) *or* from the middle of the barrel; the wine is removed by fitting in a spout (RASHI KESAV YAD; see YOSEF DA'AS);
(b) from its middle third, i.e. the spout is fitted into the barrel at the bottom of the upper two thirds of the barrel's height. When the middle third has been removed (which has a visible sign, such as the "Gir" or dregs coming out from the bottom of the upper third (unlike the explanation of Rashi with regard to Gir)), no more wine is removed from this barrel (RASHASH, 1st explanation); (c) from the upper third of the barrel (but not from the top layer), from the middle barrel of the wine cellar, that has a barrel above it and a barrel under it, and barrels at the sides (RAMBAM Hilchos Isurei Mizbe'ach 7:6; RASHASH, 2nd explanation)

4) [line 2] GIZBAR - the treasurer or agent of Hekdesh
5) [line 3] KANEH - a measuring stick (RASHI KESAV YAD)

6a) [line 3] ZARAK HA'GIR - he waited until the "Gir" came out of the barrel and discarded it. The "Gir" is (a) the white top layer of the dregs, which is found at approximately one third of the height of the barrel (RASHI); (b) the white bottom layer of the dregs at the top of the barrel, which is found at approximately two thirds of the height of the barrel (RASHASH)
b) [line 3] HIKISH BA'KANEH - he made a noise by hitting the jug with a Kaneh (he did not want to talk -- see below, entry #16b)

7a) [line 5] "... TEMIMIM YIHEYU LACHEM. U'MINCHASAM [SOLES BELULAH VA'SHAMEN...]" - "... unblemished they shall be to you. And their Menachos [shall be of flour mixed with oil...]" (Bamidbar 28:19-20) - The Gemara joins the last three word of verse 19 and the first word of verse 20 to prove that the Menachos also must be Temimim (unblemished), as well as all of the items that are used as Korbanos (RASHI KESAV YAD).
b) [line 5] "... TEMIMIM YIHEYU LACHEM V'NISKEIHEM." - "... unblemished they shall be to you and their wine libations." (Bamidbar 28:31)

8) [line 9] KEROCH V'TANI- put the two cases of the Mishnah together and learn as follows: (a) ["Ein Mevi'in Halistiyon Lefi she'Ein Mevi'in Masok... v'Im Hevi *Pasul*." - "We do not use wine made of Halistiyon because we do not use wine made of sweetened grapes... and if one were to use one of these, it is *invalid*."] (RASHI); (b) ["Ein Mevi'in Halistiyon... v'Ein Mevi'in Masok... v'Im Hevi *Kasher*." - "We do not use wine made of Halistiyon... or wine made of sweetened grapes... and if one were to use one of these, it is nevertheless *valid*."] (TOSFOS DH Keroch)

9a) [line 10] CHULYA D'SHIMSHA LO MA'IS - sweetness from the sun is not rejected l'Chatchilah
b) [line 10] CHULYA D'FEIRA MA'IS - sweetness from the fruit is rejected even b'Di'eved

10) [line 13] "LA'KEVES, YAYIN" - "... for the sheep, wine" (Bamidbar 28:14) - Chizkiyah learns that the wine is compared to the sheep. Just like the sheep must be brought within their first year, so, too, must the wine be within its first year (but over forty days old).

[line 14] IY MAH KEVES BEN SHTEI SHANIM PASUL, AF YAYIN BEN SHTEI SHANIM PASUL? - If [the wine is compared to the sheep,] just like a two-year-old sheep is invalid, even b'Di'eved, [could it be that] two-year-old wine also invalid b'Di'eved? (It is not! Two-year-old wine is valid b'Di'eved, as the Gemara proves shortly.)

11) [line 19] "AL TERE YAYIN KI YIS'ADAM" - "Do not look upon wine when it is red" (Mishlei 23:31) - The verse implies that red wine takes precedence, and a wine's red color is most prominent within its first year.

12) [line 20] KERAMIM HA'AVUDID PA'AMAYIM B'SHANAH - vineyards that are worked (i.e. aerated by digging around the roots) two times a year

13) [line 22] KARNA D'FARDEISA - a corner of his vineyard
14) [line 22] D'RAFIK BEI TEFEI RIFKA - he did an extra turning of the soil
15a) [line 22] V'AVAD CHAMRA - and it produced wine
b) [line 23] D'DARI MAYA AL CHAD TEREIN - that was so strong that it needed twice the water to dilute it; normal wine at the time was diluted with three parts water while Rav Yosef's wine needed to be diluted with six parts water

16) [line 24] CHAVIYOS: KADIYOS LUDIYOS BEINONIYOS - the words "Chaviyos [Ketanos]" of the Mishnah means "medium-size Ludian jugs" (see YOSEF DA'AS citing the KEREN ORAH, who states that the Girsa of the TOSEFTA is "*V'LO* B'CHAVIYOS KETANOS," which is a very probable reason that our Gemara rules to use Beinoniyos)

17a) [line 30] KE'SHEM SHEHA'DIBUR YAFEH LA'BESAMIM - just as speaking is good for the Besamim [during their preparation]
b) [line 31] KACH DIBUR RA LA'YAYIN - so is speaking bad for wine [during its preparation or fermentation] (i.e. it can cause it to become vinegar instead of wine; see Interactive Discussions to Menachos 87a, "Speaking around wine and incense")

18a) [line 35] ELIM - rams
b) [line 35] KEVASIM - sheep
19) [line 36] AGALIM - calves
20) [line 36] SHARON - a coastal region in Eretz Yisrael stretching from the Yarkon River in the south until Mount Carmel in the north, which is know for growing cattle

21) [line 36] GOZALOS - doves, pigeons
22) [line 36] HAR HA'MELECH - (lit. the mountain of the king) the region around Beis El in the hills of Efrayim, bordering on the mountains of Yehudah, preserved in the name of the Arab village Kefar Malich (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 82-84

23) [line 37] SHE'GOVHAN K'ROCHBAN - (a) that they are as wide as they are high (RASHI, RASHI KESAV YAD, 1st explanation); (b) according to the reading, "SHE'GABEIHEN RECHAVIM" - the backs of which are very wide (RASHI KESAV YAD, 2nd explanation)

24) [line 39] "... YIR'EH MIKNECHA BA'YOM HA'HU KAR NIRCHAV." - "[Then shall He give the rain for your seed, that you shall sow the ground with it; and bread of the produce of the earth, and it shall be fat and abundant;] in that day shall your cattle feed in large pastures." (Yeshayah 30:23) - The words "Kar Nirchav" - "large pastures," are interpreted to mean, "wide sheep," based upon many verses where the word "Karim" is used to refer to sheep (e.g. Devarim 32:14, Melachim II 3:4, Yeshayah 34:6, et al.)

25) [line 39] "AL CHOMOSAYICH YERUSHALAYIM HIFKADTI SHOMRIM KOL HA'YOM V'CHOL HA'LAILAH, TAMID LO YECHESHU HA'MAZKIRIM ES HASH-M, AL DAMI LACHEM." - "I have set watchmen upon your walls, O Yerushalayim, who shall never hold their peace day nor night; you who make mention of HaSh-m, take no rest." (Yeshayah 62:6) - The "watchmen" are angles. The Gemara asks what is it that they say?

26) [line 43] "IVAH L'MOSHAV LO" - "[For HaSh-m has chosen Tziyon;] He has desired it for His habitation." (Tehilim 132:13)

*****PEREK #10 SHTEI MIDOS*****

(a) Equivalents of volume used in the Mishanh and Gemara:

  • 1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in
  • 1 Lesech = 15 Se'in
  • 1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
  • 1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
  • 1 Tarkav (= 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin
  • 1 Kav = 4 Lugin
  • 1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim
  • 1 Beitzah = 2 k'Zeisim
(b) Modern-day equivalents:
1 k'Zayis = approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Therefore 1 Isaron = 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(a) The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM, but see Menachos 50b). Next, the rolls are folded *without* breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b) Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach. The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions), a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.
(c) An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:13). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).

29) [line 50] "[V']ISARON ISARON LA'KEVES HA'ECHAD..." - "[And] one Isaron for each Keves..." (Bamidbar 29:15) - From the repetition of the word "Isaron" Rebbi Meir learns that there were two separate Isaron measures in the Beis ha'Mikdash. (The reference of the Torah Or to Bamidbar 28 seems to be a misprint, since the Gemara on Amud Beis clearly shows that Rebbi Meir learns from a verse the first word of which is "v'Isaron," which has a second letter "Vav" with a dot on top of it, which is not found in Bamidbar 28.)

30a) [last line] ECHAD GADUSH - one that would hold exactly an Isaron of flour only if it was filled with a heaping measure
b) [last line] ECHAD MACHUK - one that would hold exactly an Isaron of flour only if it was leveled off


31) [line 3] "V'ISARON ECHAD LA'KEVES HA'ECHAD" - "And one Isaron for each Keves" (Bamidbar 29:4)

32) [line 9] NIKUDO - from the dot that appear in a Sefer Torah over the second letter "Vav" in the word "v'Isaron" (Bamidbar 29:15)

33) [line 11] CHAG - of Sukos (the verses in Bamidbar 29:12-34 describe the various animal sacrifices that were brought on the festival of Sukos)

34) [line 16] CHOTZEHU - he divides it (the flour) in half

35) [line 19] SIMAN CHATZI CHAVITEI SHULCHAN - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the first words of the three questions that Rami bar Chama asked Rav Chisda in the following (and one previous) Sugyos:

  1. *Chatzi* refers to "*Chatzi* Isaron l'Rebbi Meir..." (line 18)
  2. *Chavitei* refers to "*Chavitei* Kohen Gadol ba'Meh Mechalkan l'Chalos..." (line 26)
  3. *Shulchan* refers to "*Shulchan* Mahu she'Yikadesh Kematzim ba'Godesh she'Lo..." (line 30)
36) [line 27] KELI - with a measuring utensil (RASHI KESAV YAD)
37) [line 28] TURTANI YACHNIS?! - Shall he bring in a balance-scale?!
38) [line 28] V'YACHNIS! - Let him bring it in! (What is wrong with that?)
39) [line 30] KEMATZIM - (a) the handfuls of Levonah (should they not be placed in their Bazichin (bowls) (RASHI KESAV YAD, RASHI, 2nd explanation);
(b) the handful of a Minchah offering that is separated while the Kohen happens to be standing in the Heichal (RASHI, 1st explanation)

40) [line 30] B'GODESH SHELO - (a) in the airspace between the stacks of Lechem ha'Panim (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) on the surface of the Shulchan itself (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

41) [line 34] TEFACHAYIM U'MECHETZEH KOFEL / TEFACHAYIM KOFEL - he folds up two and one half Tefachim [of each loaf] / he folds up two Tefachim [of each loaf] (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(b) Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high -- Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf.

42a) [line 35] NIMTZA SHULCHAN MEKADESH CHAMISHAH ASAR TEFACH L'MA'ALAH - we find that the Shulchan is responsible for consecrating a stack of loaves of Lechem ha'Panim that is fifteen Tefachim high (six times two and one half Tefachim)
b) [line 36] NIMTZA SHULCHAN MEKADESH SHENEIM ASAR TEFACH L'MA'ALAH - we find that the Shulchan is responsible for consecrating a stack of loaves of Lechem ha'Panim that is twelve Tefachim high (six times two Tefachim)

43a) [line 37] EINO MEKADESH LIKAREV - it does not consecrate it to be offered
b) [line 38] AVAL MEKADESH LIPASEL - it does, however, consecrate it to become Pasul, should it be brought outside of the boundaries in which it is meant to be kept ("Yotzei"), or should it be left overnight ("Linah") (RASHI), or should it be touched by a Tevul Yom (RASHI KESAV YAD)

(a) Equivalents of the liquid measures use in the Mishnah and Gemara:

  • 1 Hin (Tarkav) = 12 Lugin = 1 Tarkav (of dry measure; see above, entry #27)
  • 1 Chatzi ha'Hin = 6 Lugin
  • 1 Shelishis ha'Hin = 4 Lugin = 1 Kav (of dry measure)
  • 1 Revi'is ha'Hin = 3 Lugin
  • 1 Log = 6 Beitzim = 1/4 Kav (of dry measure)
  • 1 Chatzi Log = 3 Beitzim = 1 Toman (of dry measure)
  • 1 Revi'is Log = 1.5 Beitzim
  • 1 Toman* = 1/8 Log = 0.75 (3/4) Beitzah
  • 1 Chatzi Toman = 1/16 Log = 3/8 Beitzah
  • 1 Uchla = 1/32 Log = 3/16 Beitzah
*The MAHARSHA, in explaining the RASHBAM to Bava Basra 89a, points out that "Toman" is a generic term (which means "one eighth," from "Timna" (eight), in Aramaic) which refers to 1/8 of a Log (or 3/4 of a Beitzah) when used in reference to liquid measures, and to 1/8 of a *Kav* (or 3 Beitzim) when used in reference to dry measures. (b) Modern-day equivalents:
  • 1 Hin = 3.6, 4.145 or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachicopinions
  • 1 Log = 0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 liter
45) [line 41] SHENASOS HAYU BA'HIN - markings used for measuring were in the Hin [measure used in the Beis ha'Mikdash, specifying the amount of oil and wine needed for each type of animal]

46) [line 41] V'CHI MAH HAYAH HIN MESHAMESH?! - And what would a Hin measure be used for, anyway?! (Since Moshe Rabeinu used the Hin to make the Shemen ha'Mishchah, there was no need for the Hin measure in the daily service in the Beis ha'Mikdash.)

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