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Menachos 94

MENACHOS 94 - has been dedicated to the memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence, and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and he is sorely missed by his family.

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1a) [line 1] CHAYIM - live [Korbanos] (such as the Kivsei Atzeres and the Asham Metzora)
b) [line 1] SHECHUTIN - [parts of] slaughtered [Korbanos] (such as the Chazeh and Shok of Korbenos Shelamim and Todah)

2a) [line 1] DAVAR SHE'YESH BO RU'ACH CHAYIM - something that has (or had) life in it (such as animal Korbanos or parts of them)
b) [line 2] DAVAR SHE'EIN BO RU'ACH CHAYIM - something that never had life in it (such as the Shtei ha'Lechem and the Lachmei Todah)

3a) [line 5] TENUFAH, SHE'NISRABESAH BI'SHECHUTIN - Tenufah, the scope of which was made larger by including in it [parts of] slaughtered [Korbanos]
b) [line 5] NISMA'ATAH B'CHOVRIN - the extent of it was reduced, by allowing only one of the owners of a Korban to perform Tenufah for all of the rest of them

4) [line 15] BI'ZEMAN SHE'HAYAH KOHEN GADOL ROTZEH L'HAKTIR - when the Kohen Gadol wanted to personally throw all of the parts of the Korban Tamid onto the fires of the Mizbe'ach (HAKRAVAS KORBAN TAMID)
(a) The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b) To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
(c) The Korbenos Tamid are Olos, which are dismembered and burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Mishnah (Tamid 31a-b) states that thirteen Kohanim were employed to carry out the offering of the Korban Tamid (see below, (d)). In addition, after six of them carry the parts of the animal to the Kevesh (ramp) of the Mizbe'ach and place them there, other Kohanim would throw them from the Kevesh onto the bonfire on top of the Mizbe'ach. This procedure is a result of the verse, "b'Rov Am Hadras Melech" - "With a multitude of people is the King glorified" (Mishlei 14:28). The Mishnah cited by our Gemara (Tamid 33b) relates the procedure should the Kohen Gadol decide that he personally wanted to throw all of the parts of the Korban Tamid onto the fires of the Mizbe'ach.
(d) The Mishnah (Tamid 31a-b) lists the order of the Kohanim who perform the service:

1. The Kohen who slaughters the animal
2. The Kohen who collects the blood into a Kli Shares (a sanctified utensil)
and performs Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach)
3. The one who cleans out the ashes of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi
4. The one who cleans out the ashes of the Menorah
5. The one who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand
6. The one who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand
7. The one who carries the hind quarters (including the fat tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand
8. The one who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Geirah (neck) in his left hand
9. The one who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right side with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Semol (the left side with the upper ribs) in his left hand
10. The one who carries the Kirbayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top
11. The one who carries the Minchas Nesachim
12. The one who carries the Minchas Chavitin
13. The one who carries the wine libation.
5) [line 15] HAYAH OLEH BA'KEVESH - he would ascend the ramp
6) [line 16] HA'SEGAN BI'YEMINO - the deputy Kohen Gadol
7) [line 17] HE'ELAHU - and he helped him up
8) [line 17] HOSHIT LO HA'RISHON HA'ROSH VEHA'REGEL - the first one [who carries parts of the Korban to the Kevesh] (Kohen #5 in the list above, entry #4:d) passes to him (the Kohen Gadol) the head [with the cut neck covered by the Peder] and the [right hind] leg

9) [line 18] [V']SOMECH ALEIHEM - and he performs Semichah upon them (the parts of the Korbanos, before he throws them on the fire. The Gemara will presently show that this Semichah is out of the ordinary, and was specific to the Kohen Gadol, to honor him.)

9) [line 18] ZORKAN - he throws them (the Rosh and the Regel)
10) [line 19] SHTEI YADAYIM - (lit. the two hands) the right and left forelegs

11) [line 20] NISHMAT HA'SHENI V'HALACH LO - the second one [who carries parts of the Korban to the Kevesh] (Kohen #6 in the list above, entry #4:d) withdraws from the group on the Kevesh and walks away


12) [line 26] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a) The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Tefachim (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10).
(b) In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 93:39) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.

13) [line 26] NILOSHOS - are kneaded

14) [line 27] LECHEM HA'PANIM
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(b) Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high -- Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf.

15) [line 28] DEFUS - (O.F. forme - a mold) a baking pan
16) [line 29] KESHE'HU RODAN - when he removes them from the oven, specifically, from the pans in which they were baked

17) [line 41] V'LIHADRAH LI'DEFUS KAMA? - Why does he not return it to the original pan?
18) [last line] NAFCHAH - it rises, expands (this shows that rising alone does not constitute turning into Chametz, since the Lechem ha'Panim were Matzah -- YA'AVETZ)


19a) [line 1] K'MIN TEIVAH PERUTZAH - like an open box (see Graphics for the Sugya of the Lechem ha'Panim)
b) [line 2] K'MIN SEFINAH ROKEDES - (O.F. cojet) like a prancing boat (see Graphics for the Sugya of the Lechem ha'Panim)

20) [line 3] HAINU D'HAVU YASVEI BAZICHIN - this explains how it was possible for the bowls of Levonah to be placed on the topmost tier of the loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim

21) [line 5] MAKOM AVID LEHU - they baked into the topmost loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim a special place (a shelf, perhaps) on which to place the Bazichin

22a) [line 6] HAINU D'HAVU YASVEI KANIM - this explains how it was possible to place the Kanim (the rods that supported each tier of loaves) on top of each loaf
b) [line 7] KANIM HEICHI HAVU YASVEI? - how were the Kanim situated?

23) [line 8] MORASHA AVID LEHU - they made protrusions near the tops of the loaves

24) [line 9] HAINU D'SAMCHEI LEHU SENIFIN LA'LECHEM - this explains how the Senifim (O.F. forches, the (a) vertical poles (RASHI); (b) vertically standing, flat plates of gold, each of which was five Tefachim wide (TOSFOS)) supported the loaves

25) [line 11] D'AGIL LEHU MI'AGAL - (O.F. cercle) they would shape them into a (a) zigzag (RASHI) or (b) a curved shape (TOSFOS)

26) [line 14] AGAV YUKRA D'LECHEM TALACH - because of the weight of the loaves, they would break [had they only been stacked one upon the other, without Senifim]

27) [line 16] SENIFIN AL GABEI SHULCHAN MUNACHIN - the Senifim were placed upon the Shulchan (Golden Table) (see Graphics for the Sugya of the Lechem ha'Panim)

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