THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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MENACHOS 46 - Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. D. Kornfeld in honor of the births
of three first-born Turkel grandchildren: Ohr Esther, to Eitan and Ayeleth
Turkel of Raanana; Yael Nechamah to Avi and Esti Turkel of Passaic; and a
baby boy to Shoshi [Turkel] and Yossi Kaufman of Manchester. Mazel Tov to
the proud parents and grandparents!
1) A KORBAN TODAH OFFERED WITHOUT THE "LACHMEI TODAH"
OPINIONS: The Gemara quotes a Beraisa which states that if a Korban Todah is
slaughtered and its bread immediately becomes crumbled, the blood should be
sprinkled and the meat eaten, but the owner has not fulfilled his obligation
to bring a Korban, and the Lechem is Pasul. The Gemara asks why should the
Korban be valid? If the Lechem is Pasul, then how can the Korban itself
remain valid? The Gemara answers that a Todah is called a Shelamim, and just
as a Korban Shelamim is valid without Lechem, a Korban Todah is also valid
According to the conclusion of the Gemara, the exact identity of the Korban
is not clear. Is the Korban a "Todah" or is it a "Shelamim?" What Korban
should the Kohen have in mind when he sprinkles the blood?
(a) RASHI (DH ha'Dam) says that the blood should be sprinkled with intent
that the Korban is a Shelamim. This is also the view of TOSFOS (47b, DH
v'Harei), who explains that there is no such thing as a Korban Todah that is
brought without Lechem. If it is brought without Lechem and with intent that
it is a Todah, it is Pasul. However, a Todah can revert to being a Shelamim,
which is why it is valid if the Zerikah is done with intent that it should
be a Shelamim.
According to Rashi and Tosfos, it seems that this Korban may be eaten for
two days and one night like a normal Shelamim (as opposed to the one day and
one night of a Todah). This is the understanding of the YAD BINYAMIN.
However, the SEFAS EMES states that Tosfos maintains that this Korban must
be eaten for one day and one night, and adds that Rashi might agree.
(b) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 12:14) writes only that the
blood of the Korban should be sprinkled. Since he does not add that it must
be sprinkled with any unique intention, it appears that he means that the
Zerikah should be done with intent that the Korban is a Todah. This is the
understanding of the MIRKEVES HA'MISHNEH (17:20) and the CHAZON ISH (32:16)
in the Rambam.
However, the Rambam's words need explanation. Tosfos says that the Gemara
must mean that the Zerikah is done with intent that the Korban is a
Shelamim. If this was not the case, then why would the Gemara answer that a
Todah is called a Shelamim and is therefore valid without Lechem? Why would
it not simply say that a Todah without Lechem can still be called a Todah
and have the Zerikah done accordingly?
The Chazon Ish explains that the Rambam understands that there are two types
of Korban Todah. The Korban Todah that is offered in the manner described in
the Torah is indeed Pasul when offered without Lechem. However, when the
Torah says that a Todah is also called a Shelamim, it is saying that a Todah
without Lechem may be offered as a different type of Korban Todah -- a
Korban Todah without Lechem, which is akin to a normal Shelamim. According
to the explanation of the Chazon Ish in the Rambam, it seems that this
Korban may be eaten for only one day and one night.
REBBI AKIVA EIGER (in his footnotes on the Rambam, Hilchos Pesulei
ha'Mukdashin 12:14) quotes the MAHARI ALFANDRI who says that the Rambam's
intent is that the meat should be eaten like that of a Shelamim. (Y.
2) "SHTEI HA'LECHEM" THAT ARE OFFERED ALONE
OPINIONS: The Mishnah earlier (45b) records an argument between Rebbi Akiva
and Rebbi Shimon ben Nanas regarding whether the Shtei ha'Lechem of Shavuos
are dependent on the Kevasim, or whether the Kevasim are dependent on the
Shtei ha'Lechem. The Gemara here quotes a Beraisa describing how the Shtei
ha'Lechem would be brought according to Rebbi Akiva if they were to be
brought alone. The Beraisa states that they should have Tenufah done to
them, be left to sit overnight (and become Pasul because of Linah), and then
taken to be burned. The Gemara asks why should they have to be left out
overnight to become Pasul? If they are supposed to be eaten, then they
should be eaten, while if they are supposed to be burned, then they should
be burned right away! Why must we leave the Shtei ha'Lechem overnight and
wait for them to become Pasul before burning them?
The Gemara answers that we leave them to become Pasul because of a Gezeirah.
What exactly is the Gezeirah?
(a) The SEFAS EMES and YAD BINYAMIN explain that the simple understanding of
the Gemara seems to be that we are worried that the following year the Shtei
ha'Lechem will be offered together with the Kevasim. When the Kevasim are
slaughtered while the Shtei ha'Lechem are present, everyone agrees that are
dependent upon each other. This means that the Shtei ha'Lechem cannot be
eaten without the Zerikah of the Kevasim being done first. The Gezeirah of
the Gemara is that we are worried that if we let the Shtei ha'Lechem be
eaten without the Kevasim, then in a year in which the Shtei ha'Lechem are
offered with the Kevasim, people will say that the Shtei ha'Lechem still may
be eaten before the Zerikah of the Kevasim, as they were eaten the year
before, when no Kevasim were brought at all. To avoid this problem, we must
let the Shtei ha'Lechem become Pasul by being left overnight, and only then
do we burn them.
The Sefas Emes has difficulty with this explanation. If the problem is that
we do not want the Shtei ha'Lechem to be eaten before the Zerikah in a year
in which the Shtei ha'Lechem are brought with the Kevasim, then why do we
not make a Gezeirah that they should be eaten that night, and not during the
day? In that way, no one will ever mistakenly come to eat them during the
day before the Zerikah, since they will have no precedent for doing so!
(b) The Sefas Emes therefore explains that the problem must be that we are
worried that the next year the Kevasim will become Pasul, or the blood will
be lost before Zerikah, or something else will happen that would preclude
the Shtei ha'Lechem from being eaten even at night.
(c) RABEINU GERSHOM gives a different explanation. He explains that the
Gezeirah is that we are concerned that people might entirely stop bringing
the Kevasim with the Shtei ha'Lechem. This is also the opinion of the RAMBAM
(Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:16).
This explanation is not clear. As we explained above, this Beraisa is
following the opinion of Rebbi Akiva. Rebbi Akiva maintains that the Shtei
ha'Lechem is the main part of the Korban, and it is simply an additional
Mitzvah to bring Kevasim along with the Shtei ha'Lechem. Why, then, should
we make such a Gezeirah? It appears that they understand that even though
the main Mitzvah will still be fulfilled, there is still a Mitzvah to bring
the Kevasim which should not go unfulfilled.
However, the Sefas Emes and Yad Binyamin ask that this explanation does not
seem to fit the text of our Gemara. The Gemara says that people will not
realize that "Hashta d'Ika Kevasim, Kevasim Hu d'Sharyan" -- "now that there
are Kevasim, it is the Kevasim that make them permitted." This refers to the
fact that people will not realize that they have to wait for the Zerikah of
the Kevasim on order to eat the Shtei ha'Lechem. How does this phrase fit
the explanation of Rabeinu Gershom and the Rambam?
The Yad Binyamin explains that Rabeinu Gershom and the Rambam understand
that the Gemara's answer is that people will not realize that they must
bring the Kevasim *at all,* and that they are part of the Mitzvah as they
permit the Shtei ha'Lechem. This seems to be the way that the MAHARI KURKAS
understands the Rambam. (Y. Montrose)