POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 41
MENACHOS 41 - This Daf has been generously dedicated by Sandy and Les
Wiesel, in honor of a Refu'ah Shelemah for Mrs. G. Kornfeld.
1) WHEN IS A GARMENT OBLIGATED IN "TZITZIS"?
(a) (R. Zeira citing Shmuel): Kilayim does not apply to
Tzitzis, even if the garment is exempt.
2) TRANSFERRING "TZITZIS" TO ANOTHER GARMENT
(b) Question: What does this mean 'even if the garment is
1. Suggestion: It means, the garment is too small to
(c) Answer: It means, even if one attached Tzitzis to a
garment which already had Kosher Tzitzis.
2. Rejection (Beraisa): If a garment is big enough to
cover the head and majority of a child (who is old
enough to go in the market by himself), and big
enough for an adult to wear on occasions, it
i. If it is not big enough to cover the head and
majority of a child, even if it is big enough
for an adult to wear on occasions, it is exempt
3. Question: What does this mean 'The same applies to
ii. The same applies to Kilayim.
i. Suggestion: It means, also the prohibition of
Kilayim does not apply to a garment too small
for a child.
4. Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The same applies
to a Sadin with Techeiles (if it is too small, there
is no Mitzvah, it is forbidden on account of
Kilayim). (This concludes the rejection of
ii. Rejection (Mishnah): The prohibition of Kilayim
does not depend on whether or not someone would
wear the garment on occasions.
(d) Question: If one does not transgress in this case, surely
such Tzitzis are Kosher - if so, why did R. Zeira teach
the same law in a different text (40B 2:k)?
(e) Answer: Indeed, he only said one of these (Tosfos - this
law, in the name of Shmuel; Rashi - that law), the other
was inferred from the other.
(f) (Beraisa): If a garment is folded over, it requires
Tzitzis (on the current corners, i.e. two are on the
(g) R. Shimon says, it is exempt.
1. All agree that if it was sewn shut, it is obligated.
(h) Rabah bar Rav Huna saw that Rava bar Rav Nachman was
wearing a folded garment, it had Tzitzis on the fold. He
unfolded it, (two of) the Tzitzis were now in the middle.
2. Objection: This is obvious!
3. Answer: The case is, it was only fastened with a pin
(alternatively - it was sewn poorly with wide
1. Rabah: The Torah requires Tzitzis on the corner -
they are not there!
(i) Support (for Rabah - Beraisa): Tzadikim of old would put
Tzitzis once they had woven the three fingers of the
garment. (Rashba - if it is only Chovas Adam, it would be
a stringency to put Tzitzis on once it was finished
(before they planned to wear it), they would not be so
exceedingly stringent to do so before it was finished!)
2. Rava took off the garment.
3. Rabah: You think that Tzitzis is a Chovas Adam (one
is obligated only when he wears the garment)?! No,
it is Chovas Talis (one is obligated to put Tzitzis
on every garment he owns (and sometimes wears)) - go
put Tzitzis on the corner!
(j) Rejection: They were exceedingly stringent.
(k) Rabah argues with an angel:
1. Rav Ketina was wearing a Sadin (without Tzitzis, as
Chachamim decreed - some explain, it had Lavan but
(l) Objection: Even if Tzitzis is a Chovas Adam, one is not
liable unless he is wearing a garment that is obligated!
2. An angel: You wear a Sadin in summer, a rounded
(two-cornered) coat in winter - you never fulfill
the Mitzvah of Techeiles (some texts - Tzitzis)!
3. Rav Ketina: Do you punish for not fulfilling an
(optional) Mitzvas Ase?!
4. The angel: When Hash-m is angry, yes!
5. We understand this if Tzitzis is a Chovas Adam, Rav
Ketina was liable for not wearing Tzitzis - but if
it is a Chovas Talis, he is blameless!
(m) Answer: In any case, one (Nimukei Yosef - a great person)
should not seek ways to avoid the Mitzvah. (Tosfos - this
only applies if it is Chovas Adam; Rashi - this even
applies to Chovas Talis, we cannot infer the angel's
(n) (Shmuel): Garments (which a person will wear) require
Tzitzis, even when they are in a box.
1. Shmuel agrees that a garment prepared for shrouds is
exempt (Nimukei Yosef - even though he occasionally
wears it in his lifetime).
2. When a person is buried, we put Tzitzis on the
shrouds, to avoid disgracing him (that he is exempt
from Mitzvos) - "Lo'eg la'Rash Cheref Osehu".
(a) (Rachbah): If a garment was torn more than three fingers
from the corner, we may fix it (and the Tzitzis are
1. If it tore within three fingers of the corner, we
may not fix it (Rashi - perhaps some of the threads
used to fix it will be left hanging on the corner
for the sake of Tzitzis, and they are not valid
(they were not attached l'Shem Tzitzis); Tosfos (40B
Shema) - once it tore, the corner all the Tzitzis
are disqualified (they must be reattached after
fixing it.) Rosh - we may never put Tzitzis on, even
after fixing the corner.)
(b) Support (Beraisa): If a garment was torn more than three
fingers from the corner, we may fix it;
1. R. Meir says, if it tore within three fingers, we
may not fix it; (Hagahos Maimoni - this supports
Rachbah, for the Halachah follows R. Meir in his
decrees; Nimukei Yosef switches the opinions of R.
Meir and Chachamim, the support is from Chachamim.)
2. Chachamim permit fixing it.
3. All agree that one may not bring even a large piece
of material (with Techeiles on it) from another
garment and attach it;
4. All agree that one may bring Techeiles strings
(taken from another garment) and attach them, on
condition that they were not cut.
3) HOW MANY STRINGS ARE REQUIRED?
5. Inference: This teaches that one may remove Tzitzis
from a garment to attach them to another garment!
(c) (Beraisa #1): If a garment is entirely Techeiles, strings
of any color fulfill the Mitzvah of Lavan, except for
6. Rejection: Perhaps they may be removed only from a
(d) Contradiction (Beraisa #2): Lavan strings must be of the
same color (Rashi; Tosfos - material, unless they are
wool or linen) as the garment;
1. If a garment is entirely Techeiles, one attaches
Techeiles strings and a different color for Lavan,
he should not use Kala Ilan;
(e) Version #1 - Resolution (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak):
Beraisa #2 refers to a garment with four strings (all the
strings are needed, we are not concerned that one will
transfer them to another garment);
2. If he used Kala Ilan, he fulfilled the Mitzvah.
1. Beraisa #1 refers to a garment with eight strings
(on each corner, four Techeiles and four Kala Ilan.
Chachamim decreed to disqualify Kala Ilan, lest
someone will buy the garment and think that all the
strings are Techeiles, and transfer some to another
garment - one of the garments will have Kala Ilan in
place of Techeiles);
(f) Version #2 - Resolution (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak):
Beraisa #2 refers to a garment with eight strings (each
corner has two Techeiles and two Lavan (or some other
color that does not resemble Techeiles) strings, and four
Kala Ilan are added. L'Chatchilah this is forbidden, lest
the Kala Ilan be transferred and used in place of
1. Beraisa #1 refers to a garment with four strings (on
each corner, two Techeiles and two Kala Ilan - to
fulfill Techeiles and Lavan, the strings must be
(recognizably) of different colors.) (end of Version
(g) Inference: Since such a decree was made, this teaches
that one may remove Tzitzis from a garment to attach them
to another garment!
(h) Rejection: Perhaps it is forbidden, Chachamim decreed in
case people will (improperly) do so.
(i) (Rav): It is forbidden to remove Tzitzis from a garment
to attach them to another garment.
(j) (Shmuel): It is permitted.
(k) (Rav): It is forbidden to light a Ner of Chanukah from
another (this looks like a disgrace of the Mitzvah);
(l) (Shmuel): It is permitted.
(m) (Rav): The Halachah does not follow R. Shimon (it is
forbidden to drag things on a dirt floor on Shabbos if it
may make a furrow, this is like plowing);
(n) (Shmuel): The Halachah follows R. Shimon (it is
(o) (Abaye): Wherever Rav and Shmuel argue, my Rebbi (Rabah)
always followed (Tosfos Shabbos - the stringencies of)
Rav, except for the above three places.
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon): It is permitted to drag a
bed, chair or bench on a dirt floor, as long as one
does not intend to make a furrow.
(p) Rav Yehudah would give his garment (with Techeiles) to a
launderer (Rashi - he was not concerned that a string of
Techeiles will snap, and the launderer will replace it
with Kala Ilan; R. Gershom - he would pay nicely so the
launderer would be careful that the color will not fade);
(q) Rav Chanina would fold the Techeiles strings together (R.
Gershom - wrap them in other strings) to protect them
(when giving the garment to a launderer);
(r) Ravina would fold the garment over them and sew it shut.
(a) (Beraisa) Question: How many strings are required?
(b) Beis Shamai say, four strings are required (they are put
through the corner and doubled over, making eight ends);
(c) Beis Hillel say, three strings are required (six ends).
(d) Question: How long should be Meshulash (Rashi - what
hangs down straight (Pesil); Tosfos - the windings and
knots, this is half of the Pesil)?
(e) Beis Shamai say, four Etzba'os (finger-widths) are
(f) Beis Hillel say, three Etzba'os are required;
1. Each Etzba (of Beis Hillel) is a quarter of a
handbreadth of an average person.
(g) (Rav Papa): Whenever the Torah requires a Tefach, this is
the width of four thumbs, which equals the width of six
pinkies or five (Shitah Mekubetzes - and a third)
intermediate (index) fingers.
(h) (Rav Huna): Four strings are required, they must be
within four Etzba'os of the corner, and four Etzba'os
must be Meshulash.
(i) (Rav Yehudah): Three strings are required, they must be
within three Etzba'os of the corner, and three Etzba'os
must be Meshulash.
(j) (Rav Papa): The Halachah requires four strings within
three Etzba'os, four Etzba'os must be Meshulash.
(k) Inference: The Beraisa implies that there is a Shi'ur
(minimal length) of Tzitzis.
(l) Contradiction (Beraisa): Tzitzis must extend somewhat
past the corner; Mashehu (any amount) is Kosher;
1. Elders of Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai: There is no
Shi'ur of Tzitzis; similarly, there is no Shi'ur of
(m) Answer: No, it means that there is no upper Shi'ur, but
there is a minimal length.
2. Suggestion: This means that there is no Shi'ur at