POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Menachos 43
1) CHECKING "TECHEILES"
(a) (Beraisa): This is no way to check Techeiles, we must buy
it from an expert (who knows that Kala Ilan is invalid);
2) TO WHOM DOES THE MITZVAH APPLY?I
(b) Tefilin can be checked (for missing or extra letters),
still, we must buy them from an expert (who knows that
the hide must be tanned Lishmah);
(c) Seforim and Mezuzos can be checked, we may buy them from
anyone (the hide need not be tanned Lishmah).
(d) Question: There are ways to check Techeiles!
1. R. Yitzchak brei d'Rav Yehudah would bring alum,
fenugreek juice and urine of a baby 40 days old
(alternatively - that was emitted 40 days ago) and
soak the Techeiles in the mixture overnight; if the
color was ruined, it is Kala Ilan; if not, it is
(e) Answer: This is no way to check if Techeiles was dyed
Lishmah (perhaps it was a sample, therefore we must buy
it from an expert).
2. Rav Ada taught, one bakes it in a potent sourdough
of barley; if the color improves, it is Techeiles;
if not, it is Kala Ilan.
(f) Mar (a Chacham) bought Techeiles; it failed the test of
R. Yitzchak, but passed the test of Rav Ada. He thought
that it was invalid.
(g) Rav Achai: Will you say that it is neither Techeiles nor
1. Rather, we must say that the two tests complement
each other - if it passes the test of R. Yitzchak,
it is Techeiles; if not, we apply the test of Rav
(h) (Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): The two tests complement
2. If it passes, it is Techeiles; if not, it is Kala
(i) Rav Mani (bought and sold Techeiles - he) was careful
only to buy from experts (R. Gershom - and to perform the
tests), like the stringencies of the Beraisa.
(j) An elder: Techeiles merchants before you did so, and
their business prospered.
(k) (Beraisa): If one buys a garment with Techeiles from a
Yisrael, it is Muchzak to be Kosher;
(l) If he bought from a regular Nochri, it is Pasul (we are
concerned that he dyed it himself Lo Lishmah.)
1. If he bought from an (R. Gershom - established)
Nochri merchant, it is Muchzak to be Kosher (surely
he bought it from a Yisrael, he is afraid to lose
his reputation), even though Yisraelim are forbidden
to sell garments with Tzitzis to Nochrim.
2. Question: Why is it forbidden to sell to a Nochri?
3. Answer #1 (Chachamim of Bavel): Perhaps a harlot
will assume that the wearer is a Yisrael, and agree
to have relations with him. (Alternatively - perhaps
the Nochri will give it to a Nochris harlot for her
services, and she will say that a certain Yisrael
gave it to her, and people will suspect him.)
4. Answer #2 (Rav Yehudah): Someone who sees the Nochri
wearing Tzitzis will assume he is a Yisrael and
might accompany him, and the Nochri will kill him.
(a) Rav Yehudah put Tzitzis on his wife's garment, and he
would bless on it (R. Gershom; Rashi - his garment) every
morning 'Lehisatef b'Tzitzis'.
(b) Question: Since he holds that women are obligated, he
must hold that the Mitzvah is not Zman Grama (rather, it
applies at all times) - if so, why did he bless every
(c) Answer: He holds like Rebbi (and equates Tzitzis and
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): Every time one puts on Tefilin,
he blesses on them.
(d) Question: If so, he should have blessed every time he put
(e) Answer: He dressed modestly, he would not take off his
garment the entire day.
(f) Question: (Surely, he sometimes rose before morning to
learn -) he should have blessed when he put on the
garment, even if this was before morning!
(g) Answer: When morning came (R. Gershom - and he would be
among people), he would put on the garment he would wear
(h) (Beraisa): All are commanded about Tzitzis - Kohanim,
Leviyim and Yisraelim, converts, women and slaves;
(i) R. Shimon exempts women (and slaves), for Tzitzis is Zman
Grama, they are exempt from all such Mitzvos.
(j) Question: Obviously, the Mitzvah applies to Kohanim,
Leviyim and Yisraelim - who else should it apply to?!
(k) Answer: One might have thought, Kohanim are exempt;
1. The Torah writes the Mitzvah of Tzitzis right after
the prohibition of Kilayim - this teaches that the
Mitzvah only applies to those forbidden to wear
(l) Question: Why does R. Shimon exempt women?
2. Suggestion: Since Kilayim is permitted to Kohanim
(in Bigdei Kehunah), they should be exempt from
3. Rejection: Kilayim is permitted to Kohanim only for
the sake of Avodah, otherwise (e.g. outside the
Mikdash) they are forbidden (therefore, they are
commanded about Tzitzis).
(m) Answer (Beraisa): "U'R'isim Oso" - this excludes a
garment normally worn (Tosfos; Rashi, Rambam - all
garments) at night;
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it rather excludes the garment
of a blind person!
2. Rejection: "Asher Techaseh Bah" includes the garment
of a blind person, therefore "U'R'isim Oso" excludes
a night garment.
3. Question: (The verses do not specify which to
include or exclude) - why don't we include a night
garment and exclude that of a blind person?
4. Answer: It is more reasonable to include the garment
of a blind person, for others see (the Techeiles on)
it, whereas no one sees a night garment.
(n) Question: How do Chachamim expound "Asher Techaseh Bah"?
3) BENEFITS OF THE MITZVAH OF "TZITZIS"
(o) Answer: They expound like the following Beraisa:
1. (Beraisa): "Al Arba Kanfos Kesusecha Asher Techaseh
Bah" - a four cornered garment is obligated, not a
three cornered garment;
(p) R. Shimon used "Asher *Techaseh Bah*" to include a blind
person's garment - he uses "Asher" to include a five
2. Suggestion: Perhaps we exclude a five cornered
3. Rejection: "Asher Techaseh Bah" includes a five
4. Question: (The verse does not specify which to
include) - perhaps we should include a three
cornered garment and exclude a five cornered
5. We exclude a three cornered garment, for it does not
have four corners; we include a five cornered
garment, for it has four corners.
(a) Question: How do Chachamim expound "U'R'isim Oso"?
4) BLESSINGS ONE SHOULD MAKE EVERY DAY
(b) Answer: They expound like the one of the following
1. (Beraisa #1): "U'R'isim Oso u'Zchartem" - you should
see it (the Techeiles) and remember a Mitzvah that
depends on Techeiles, i.e. Kri'as Shma;
(c) (Beraisa): Yisrael are dear to Hash-m, He surrounded us
with Mitzvos - Tefilin on the head and arm, Tzitzis on
the garment and Mezuzah on the doorway;
i. (Mishnah): The time to read Kri'as Shma is when
it is light enough to distinguish between
(Tzitzis of) Lavan and Techeiles.
2. (Beraisa #2): "U'R'isim Oso u'Zchartem" - you should
see it and remember another Mitzvah written next to
it, i.e. Kilayim.
3. Version #1 (Beraisa #3): "U'R'isim Oso u'Zchartem Es
Kol Mitzvosai" - once a person is obligated in the
Mitzvah of Tzitzis (i.e., when he becomes Bar
Mitzvah) he is obligated in all the Mitzvos;
4. Version #2 (Beraisa #3): "U'R'isim Oso u'Zchartem Es
Kol Mitzvosai" - once a person is obligated in the
Mitzvah of Tzitzis (i.e., when it is light enough to
distinguish between the Lavan and Techeiles) he is
obligated in all the Mitzvos (that apply only during
the day); (end of Version #2)
i. This is like R. Shimon (who exempts women -
according to Chachamim, women are obligated in
Tzitzis but not in all the Mitzvos).
5. (Beraisa #4): "U'R'isim Oso u'Zchartem Es Kol
Mitzvosai" - Tzitzis is equivalent to all the
6. (Beraisa #5): "U'R'isim Oso u'Zchartem...va'Asisem"
- seeing (Techeiles) brings to remembering (the
Mitzvos), which brings to doing (them);
7. R. Shimon says, anyone who is zealous to fulfill
this Mitzvah merits to receive the Shechinah - it
says "U'R'isim Oso", and it says "Es Hash-m Elokecha
Tira v'Oso Sa'avod" (in both, 'Oso' refers to the
Shechinah; alternatively, we expound 'Tira' (you
will fear) as if it said 'Tireh' (you will see).)
1. "Sheva ba'Yom Hilalticha" (for these seven Mitzvos,
i.e. two Tefilin, four Tzitziyos and one Mezuzah);
(d) R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, anyone who has Tefilin on his
head and arm, Tzitzis on the garment and Mezuzah on the
doorway, he is firm that he will not sin - "Veha'Chut
ha'Meshulash Lo vi'Mherah Yinasek".
2. When David entered the bathhouse, he was dismayed
that he was bare of Mitzvos - he remembered his
circumcision and was comforted;
i. When he left he composed "Lamnatze'ach Al
ha'Sheminis" - out of appreciation of
circumcision, which was given on the eighth
1. It also says "Choneh Mal'ach Hash-m Soviv li'Re'av".
(e) (Beraisa - R. Meir): Techeiles was chosen to put on
Tzitzis, because its color resembles the sea (to remind
Yisrael of Hash-m's miracles at the sea), which resembles
the sky, which resembles the Kisei ha'Kavod;
1. It says "...Livnas ha'Sapir uch'Etzem ha'Shamayim
la'Tohar", and it says "K'Mar'e Even Sapir Demus
(f) (Beraisa - R. Meir): The punishment for one who does not
fulfill Lavan is greater than that for one who does not
fulfill Techeiles (for the latter is more expensive);
1. A parable - a king asked one servant to bring a
Chosam (identification bracelet) made of mud, and
another servant to bring one made of gold; they were
negligent and did not do so;
i. The former will be punished more.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Meir): A person must make 100 blessings
every day - "Mah Hash-m Elokecha Sho'el me'Imach..."
(Rashi - we read "Mah" as if it said 'Me'ah (100)'; R.
Tam - there are 100 letters in this verse.)
(b) (On a weekday, the Tefilos and two meals comprise 100
blessings;) on Shabbos and Yom Tov (there are fewer
blessings in Tefilah) R. Chiya brei d'Rav Avya would
bless on fragrances and delicacies to fulfill 100
(c) (Beraisa - R. Meir): A person must make the following
three blessings every day - 'That You made me a Yisrael',
'That You did not make me a woman (who is exempt from
Mitzvas Ase sheha'Zman Grama), 'That You did not make me
a Bor (unlearned, undisciplined person).'
(d) The son of Rav Acha bar Yakov blessed 'That You did not
make me a Bor'; his father rebuked him (for considering
himself learned; alternatively, because a Bor is
obligated in the Mitzvos).
1. His son: What should I bless in place of it?
2. Rav Acha: Bless 'That You did not make me a slave'.
3. Question: That is the same as 'That You did not make
me a woman' (both are commanded in the same Mitzvos;
alternatively, her husband receives her earnings!)
4. Answer: It is more disgraceful to be a slave.
(Alternatively - in any case, make a third blessing,
even though there is no Chidush in it.)