POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 72
1) PERMITTED HARVESTING BEFORE THE "OMER"
(a) (Mishnah): One may harvest on account of young trees, to
make room for Birkas Avelim, or for people to learn.
2) REAPING THE "OMER"
(b) Question: Why are all of these permitted? (According to
the explanation that 'on account of trees' is to avoid a
loss (which is not a Mitzvah), we must say that grain
sprouted in a tree field, we already know that this is
permitted (for the Omer may not come from a tree field),
we only ask about the latter two cases.)
(c) Answer: This is because the Torah forbids "Ketzirchem
(your harvesting)", not harvesting for the sake of a
(d) (Mishnah): One may not tie bundles of grain, one may make
bundles without tying them.
(e) Question: What is the reason?
(f) Answer: We minimize exertion (lest one come to eat
(a) (Mishnah): L'Chatchilah, barley should be cut (Lishmah)
for the Omer.
3) DOES THE "OMER" OVERRIDE SHABBOS?
(b) (Beraisa) Question: "V'Im Takriv Minchas Bikurim" - why
does the end of the verse repeat "Takriv"?
(c) Answer #1: L'Chatchilah, barley should be cut for the
Omer - the extra "Takriv" teaches; if there is no
attached barley, we may use detached sheaves.
(d) Answer #2: L'Chatchilah, the barley should be moist - the
extra "Takriv" teaches; if there is no moist barley, we
may use dry.
(e) Answer #3: L'Chatchilah, it should be cut at night;
1. Question: What is the source that if it was cut
during the day, it is Kosher, and that it is Docheh
(f) (Mishnah): If it was cut during the day, it is Kosher.
2. Answer: The extra "Takriv" teaches; it may be
offered in any case (even from pre-cut sheaves),
from any place (even though it will be dry when it
gets to Yerushalayim), even on Shabbos, even
(g) Contradiction (Mishnah): The entire night is Kosher for
reaping the Omer and Haktarah of Chelev and limbs;
1. The general rule is - anything Kosher during the
daytime is Kosher the entire day, anything Kosher at
night is Kosher the entire night.
(h) Resolution (Rava): Our Mishnah is like Rebbi, that
Mishnah is like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon.
2. Inference: This equates day and night - just like
daytime Mitzvos may not be done at night, nighttime
Mitzvos may not be done by day!
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): If a Kohen was offering the Omer
(during the day) and it became Tamei, if there is
more grain available, we harvest it and offer it; if
not, we tell him to be quiet (we do not want people
to know that it was brought b'Tum'ah, lest they will
think that even Korbanos Yachid may be brought
2. R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, in either case we
tell him to be quiet, for if the Omer was harvested
improperly (i.e. during the day), it is Pasul.
(a) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon holds
like R. Akiva, the Rebbi of his father, and like R.
1. (Mishnah - R. Akiva): Any Melachah (for the sake of
circumcision) which can be done before Shabbos does
not override Shabbos.
(b) Question: Rebbi was also a Talmid of R. Shimon (why does
2. (Mishnah - R. Yishmael): (The Torah says to refrain
from plowing and reaping on Shabbos -) just like
plowing is optional (we never find a Mitzvah to
plow), also reaping;
i. This excludes reaping the Omer, it is a
Mitzvah, it overrides Shabbos.
3. If an Omer harvested improperly would be Kosher,
reaping would not override Shabbos - we would have
to reap before Shabbos!
4. Conclusion: If the Omer was harvested improperly, it
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): When we learned from R. Shimon,
we would bring to him (on Shabbos) oil and a towel,
transferring them from Chatzer to roof, from roof to
Karfef (an enclosed place without a roof), from
Karfef to Karfef, until we reached the bathing
spring. (This teaches that R. Shimon permits
transferring between these places without an Eiruv;
our Gemara cites the Beraisa merely to show that
Rebbi was his Talmid.)
(c) Answer #1: Rebbi holds like another teaching of R.
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon): A Mitzvah in its time is
great - limbs (of an Olah) and Chelev can be burned
all night, but (l'Chatchilah) we burn them during
the day (even on Shabbos!)
(d) Objection: Surely, R. Elazar heard this teaching of his
father! (How does he infer that an improperly harvested
Omer is Pasul - perhaps Chavivus ha'Mitzvah overrides
***** PEREK V'ELU MENACHOS ****
(e) Answer: (Indeed, he heard it -) there is different, since
slaughter already overrode Shabbos, also Haktarah (but we
do not *begin* Melachah on Shabbos (e.g. reaping) if the
Mitzvah can be done another day.)
(f) (The above answer is sound, surely Rebbi agrees that such
a distinction may be made - Answer #1 is insufficient!)
(g) Answer #2: Rebbi holds that reaping the Omer does not
(h) Question (Mishnah - Chachamim): Whether or not it is
Shabbos, it is sifted from three Sa'im.
(i) Answer: Rebbi argues with that.
(j) Question (Mishnah - Chachamim): Whether or not it is
Shabbos, it is reaped by three people, each with his own
sickle and box.
(k) Answer: Rebbi argues with that.
(l) Question (Mishnah): If it is Shabbos, each asks 'Is it
Shabbos?' (and they reap!)
(m) Answer: Rebbi argues with that.
(n) (Mishnah): If it was cut during the day, it is Kosher; it
(o) Question: Rebbi is the Tana who says that if it was cut
during the day, it is Kosher - and the Mishnah says, it
1. Suggestion: It means, reaping the Omer overrides
(p) Answer: No, it means that Hakravas ha'Omer overrides
(q) Question: Reaping the Omer does override Shabbos!
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi) Question: "Va'Ydaber Moshe Es
Mo'adei Hash-m" - what do we learn from this?
(r) Answer: No, harvesting the Omer overrides Shabbos, just
like baking Shtei ha'Lechem overrides Shabbos;
2. Answer: It says "B'Mo'ado" regarding the Tamid and
Korban Pesach, teaching that they may be offered on
Shabbos and b'Tum'ah;
i. Question: What is the source for other Korbanos
3. Question: For what does the Tana need a source that
Shtei ha'Lechem overrides Shabbos?
ii. Answer: We learn from "Eleh Ta'asu la'Sh-m
b'Mo'adeichem" (in Parshas Pinchus, where all
the Musafim are taught.)
iii. Question: What is the source for the Omer,
Shtei ha'Lechem and the Korbanos that accompany
these (which are in Parshas Emor?)
iv. Answer: We learn from "Va'Ydaber Moshe Es
Mo'adei Hash-m" (in that Parshah) - each has a
Mo'ed (fixed time, so it overrides Shabbos and
i. It cannot be for the Hakravah, they are totally
eaten by Kohanim!
4. Answer: He needs a source for grinding and sifting
5. (These could have been done before Shabbos,
nevertheless they override Shabbos -) similarly,
reaping the Omer overrides Shabbos!
1. Rebbi holds that the oven is Mekadesh Shtei
ha'Lechem, it cannot be baked the day before, for it
would become Nifsal on account of Linah.
(s) Question Rebbi does not hold that the oven is Mekadesh!
1. (Beraisa): Kivsei Atzeres Mekadesh the bread only
(t) Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): When the Tana'im in
this Beraisa say 'Kadosh', they mean 'Kove'a' (that the
bread cannot be brought with other lambs.)
2. If they were slaughtered Lishmah and Zerikah was
Lishmah, they are Mekadesh the bread;
3. If slaughter and Zerikah were Lo Lishmah, they are
4. Rebbi says, if slaughter was Lishmah and Zerikah was
Lo Lishmah, the bread is Kadosh and not Kadosh;
5. R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, it is not Kadosh
unless slaughter and Zerikah were both Lishmah.
4) "SHEYAREI MENACHOS" THAT ARE EATEN
(a) (Mishnah): Kemitzah is taken from the following Menachos
and the Shirayim are eaten by Kohanim:
1. Minchas Soles, Machavas, Marcheshes, (Ma'afe Tanur)
Chalos and Rekikim, the Minchah of Nochrim or women,
the Omer, Minchas Chotei and Minchas Kena'os;
(b) R. Shimon says, Minchas Kohanim is Nikmetzes, the Kometz
is Huktar by itself and the Shirayim by themselves.
(c) Version #1 (Gemara - Rav Papa): Whenever the Mishnah
lists the Menachos Nedavah, each of them is baked into 10
(d) Version #2 (Rav Papa): Whenever the Mishnah lists the
different Menachos, it lists 10 kinds; (end of Version
1. This is unlike R. Shimon, who says that Ma'afe Tanur
may be brought half Chalos and half Rekikim.
(e) (Mishnah): The Shirayim are eaten by Kohanim.
(f) Question: What is the source of this?
(g) Objection: This is obvious! Regarding some of them it
explicitly says that Kohanim eat the Shirayim;
1. Regarding the others, it says "V'Zos Toras
ha'Minchah...Veha'Noseres Mimenu Yochlu Aharon
(h) Clarification: We do not ask about Menachos of wheat
(indeed, those are obvious);
1. The question is about barley Menachos.
(i) Objection: Also this is obvious! Since they are
Nikmatzos, Kohanim eat the Shirayim!
(j) Clarification: We do not ask according to Chachamim
(indeed, according to Chachamim this is obvious);
1. The question is according to R. Shimon, who says
that some Nikmatzos are not eaten:
(k) (Precise formulation of question): According to R.
Shimon, what is the source that Kohanim eat the Shirayim
of Menachos of barley (the Omer and Minchas Kena'os?)
2. (Mishnah - R. Shimon): Minchas Kohanim is Nikmetzes,
the Kometz is Huktar by itself and the Shirayim by
(l) Answer #1 (Chizkiyah): "V'Chol Minchah Velulah va'Shemen
va'Charevah l'Chol Benei Aharon Tihyeh"- since we do not
need this to teach about Belulah (kneaded with oil) and
dry Menachos of wheat (since we know these from "V'Zos
Toras ha'Minchah..."), we use it to teach about Belulah
of barley (the Omer) and dry Menachos of barley