POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 77
MENACHOS 77 - dedicated by Rav Eli Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland. Mazel
Tov on the occasion of the Bar Mitzvah of his grandson, Chaim Yitzchok Ozer
Rosengarten. May he continue in the ways of his illustrious forebears, and
grow to be outstanding in Torah and Yir'as Shamayim.
***** PEREK HA'TODAH ****
1) CHANGING MEASURES
(a) (Mishnah): The Todah comes from five Yerushalmi Sa'im,
this equals six Sa'im of the Midbar;
(b) (According to the measures of the Midbar,) these are two
Eifos, 20 Esronim - 10 Esronim are used for the Chametz,
10 are used for the Matzah.
(c) There are three kinds of Matzah (Lachmei Todah) - Chalos,
Rekikim and Revuchah;
1. Three and a third Esronim are used for each kind of
Matzah, three loaves to each Isaron.
(d) According to the Yerushalmi measures, these are 30 Kavim,
15 for the Chametz, 15 for the Matzah;
1. Each Chametz loaf is one and a half Kavim;
(e) (Gemara) Question: What is the source that an Eifah is
2. Five Kavim are used for each kind of Matzah, two
loaves to each Kav.
(f) Answer (Rav Chisda): "Ha'Eifah veha'Bas Tochen Echad
Yihyeh (they are the same)";
1. An Eifah is three Sa'im, just like a Bas.
(g) Question: What is the source that a Bas is three Sa'im?
1. Suggestion: We learn from "Lases Ma'aser ha'Chomer
ha'Bas" (Bas is a tenth of a Chomer.)
(h) Answer: We learn from "...Ma'aser ha'Bas Min ha'Kor" (it
was known that a Kor is 30 Sa'im; the end of the verse
teaches that also Chomer is 30 Sa'im - "Aseres ha'Batim
2. Rejection: If we know Chomer (that it is 30 Sa'im),
we can learn Eifah directly from it (we need not
learn from Bas) - "Va'Asiris ha'Chomer ha'Eifah"!
3. (Apparently, the Gemara did not know the meaning of
"Chomer". - this is difficult, for a Torah verse
(Vayikra 27:16) says that a field in which a Chomer
of barley is sown is redeemed for 50 Shekalim, the
Gemara (Erchin 25A) did not need a source that this
is a Beis Kor.)
(i) (Shmuel): People of the city may not increase the
measures more than a sixth, nor may they increase the
(weight of the) coins by more than a sixth, a grocer may
not charge more than a sixth above the price he pays for
(j) Question: Why it is forbidden to increase the measures
more than a sixth?
1. Suggestion: When merchants see that the measures
increased, they will raise prices more than they
should. (Rashi Kesav Yad - perhaps they will think
that there is a food shortage!)
(k) Answer #1: We do not want sales to be invalidated (if a
merchant did not know about the increase, he will charge
the usual amount, people will buy using their own (new,
increased) measure, underpaying more than a sixth. When
the seller finds out, he can invalidate the sale.)
2. Rejection: If so, it should be forbidden to increase
them even a sixth!
(l) Rejection: But Rava taught, if the wrong measure, weight
or number was given, even less than a sixth, the sale is
invalid (Rashbam; Rambam - the sale stands, but the
additional amount must be given or returned.)
(m) Answer #2: We do not want merchants to lose money (they
normally profit a sixth, they will only lose their
(n) Objection: A merchant's income is from his profit, we
should be concerned for his livelihood!
(a) Answer #3 (Rav Chisda): Chachamim expounded "Esrim
Shekalim Chamishah v'Esrim Shekalim Asarah va'Chamishah
Shekek ha'Maneh Yihyeh Lachem";
1. Question: A Maneh is (100 Dinarim,) not 240 (60
Shekalim, i.e. 20 and 25 and 15)!
(o) Support (Ravina - Mishnah): The Todah comes from five
Yerushalmi Sa'im, this equals six Sa'im of the Midbar
(this shows that the an outer sixth is added.)
2. Answer (Rav Chisda): We learn from this three
things: the Maneh of Hekdesh is double a normal
i. We may increase measures, but no more than a
sixth; (a double Maneh should be 200 Dinarim,
and the verse considers it 240);
ii. The sixth is 'outer' (the increase (40) is a
sixth of the total (the new measure, 240), this
equals a fifth of the old measure).
2) "TERUMAS LACHMEI TODAH"
(a) (Mishnah): One loaf of each of the four kinds is taken to
be Terumah - "V'Hikriv Mimenu Echad mi'Kol Korban Terumah
1. "Echad" - a full loaf must be taken, not a piece;
"mi'Kol Korban" - all the Korbanos (kinds of bread)
must be the same (in number), one may not separate
from one kind to exempt another kind.
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): "V'Hikriv *Mimenu*" - from Mechubar,
i.e. the loaves must be together (Rashi Kesav Yad - in
one vessel; Tosfos - touching) when Terumah is taken.
2. "La'Kohen ha'Zorek Es Dam ha'Shelamim Lo Yihyeh" -
the Kohen gets the Terumah, the remaining breads are
eaten by the owner.
1. "Echad" - a full loaf must be taken; "mi'Kol Korban"
- all the Korbanos must be the same, one may not
separate from one kind to exempt another;
(c) Question: This teaches that 10 Esronim are used
(altogether) for the Chametz - what is the source that 10
are used for the Matzah?
2. "La'Kohen ha'Zorek Es Dam ha'Shelamim Lo Yihyeh" -
the remaining breads are eaten by the owner.
3. Question: (It says that one loaf of each kind is
made Terumah) - how many loaves are there are of
4. Answer: It says here "Terumah", like it says
regarding Terumas Ma'aser - there one part in 10 is
Terumah, also here.
5. Question: Perhaps we should learn from Bikurim,
which are also called Terumah - there, any amount
6. Answer: We learn Terumah (of Lachmei Todah) from
Terumas Ma'aser, for no Terumah is taken after them,
but after Bikurim, Terumah is taken from the
7. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn Lachmei
Todah from Bikurim, for both of them must be eaten
in a Kodesh place (Yerushalayim), but Terumas
Ma'aser is permitted everywhere!
8. Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Mimenu
Terumah la'Sh-m" from Terumas Ma'aser.
9. Question: Indeed, this teaches that Terumah is one
out of 10 - how much flour is used for each Chalah?
10. Answer: It says here "Lechem", like it says
regarding Shtei ha'Lechem - just like there each
loaf is one Isaron, also here.
11. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn from Lechem
ha'Panim, it is also called Lechem, each loaf is two
12. Answer: We learn Lachmei Todah from Shtei ha'Lechem,
for both are Chametz brought with a Zevach.
13. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn Lachmei
Todah from Lechem ha'Panim, for both may be brought
from Eretz Yisrael or Chutz la'Aretz, and from
Chadash or old grain!
14. Answer: Regarding Shtei ha'Lechem it says
"Mi'Moshvoseichem Tavi'u Lechem Tenufah" - Tavi'u is
extra (before this, it says "V'Hikravtem"), it
teaches that whatever you bring similar to this
(i.e. Chametz) should be the same size, one Isaron
15. Question: Perhaps it teaches that any other Chametz
brought should be the same *total* size, two
16. Answer: "(Shnei Esronim Soles) Tihyenah" - this is
written with an extra Yud, to teach about Lachmei
Todah (this will be explained).
(d) Answer: "Al Chalos Lechem Chametz" - the Matzah has as
much flour as the Chametz.
(e) Suggestion: Perhaps all the Matzah is baked the same way!
(f) Rejection: "...Chalos Matzos Belulos ba'Shemen u'Rekikei
Matzos Meshuchim ba'Shamen v'Soles Murbeches" - there are
three kinds, a third of the 10 Esronim are used for each,
three Chalos are made from each Isaron;
1. In all there are 40 Lachmei Todah, four are given to
the Kohen, the rest are eaten by the owner.
(g) (Beraisa): "V'Hikriv Mimenu" - from Mechubar.
(h) Question: If so, we should similarly expound "V'Es Kol
Chelbo Yarim Mimenu" - if Chelev is removed after the
Korban is dissected, how is this fulfilled?!
(i) Answer: Rav Chisda taught, the Korban is not dissected
until the Eimurim are removed.
(j) (Beraisa): It says here "Terumah", like it says regarding
(k) Question: Why don't we learn from Terumah taken from the
spoils Benei Yisrael took after defeating Midyan? (Rashi
- this refers to what Benei Yisrael gave to the Leviyim,
one part in 50 (of Benei Yisrael's half); Rashi Kesav Yad
- it refers to what the soldiers gave to the Kohanim, one
part in 500.)
(l) Answer: We learn Terumas Lachmei Todah from Terumas
Ma'aser, for both of these apply to all generations.
(m) Question: Why don't we learn from Chalah, which is called
Terumah? (Rashi - we would learn one part in 48, like
bakers must give Chalah; Rashi Kesav Yad - we would learn
a 24th, like regular people give.)
(n) Answer (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): We learn Terumas Lachmei
Todah from Terumas Ma'aser, regarding both of these it
says "Mimenu Terumas Hash-m".
(o) Question (Rava): If a Zar ate Terumas Lachmei Todah, is
he Chayav Misah bi'Dei Shamayim (if he ate b'Mezid), does
he add a fifth (when paying for it, if he ate b'Shogeg)?
1. Since it is equated to Terumas Ma'aser, Misah and
(p) Question: If Terumas Lachmei Todah became mixed with
other food, does it Medame'a (forbid its mixture to
2. Or, perhaps the exclusions "Vo"`and "Chamishiso"
teach that these apply to Terumah, not to Terumas
(q) These questions are not resolved.