ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Nazir 40
(a) Rav Chisda says 'Lilkos be'Achas', a Nazir receives Malkos for shaving
even one hair. When he says ...
1. ... 'Le'akev bi'Shetayim' - he means that, if, when shaving his hair at
the termination of his Nezirus, he leaves two hairs uncut, he has not
fulfilled his Mitzvah.
(b) Rav Chisda mean specifically a razor - as long as he removes his hair
completely, like a razor does.
2. ... 'Listor, Eino Soser Ela be'Rov Sa'aro' - he means that if he shaves
during his Nezirus, he is obligated to count another thirty days only if he
shaved off most of his hair.
3. ... 'u've'Ta'ar' - he is referring specifically to 'Lilkos be'Achas' (but
in the case of 'Listor, Eino Soser Ela be'Rov Sa'aro', it makes no
difference how he cut his hair).
(c) The source for these Halachos is 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.
(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon disagrees with the
Tana Kama regarding the last of the three Halachos ('Listor, Eino Soser Ela
be'Rov Sa'aro'). He says - that just like 'Le'akev bi'Shetayim', so too
'Listor, Eino Soser Ela bi'Shetayim.
(a) A Nazir, a Metzora and the Levi'im in the desert have in common - the
fact that all three have a Mitzvah to shave.
(b) Despite the fact that the Torah obligates them all to shave, the Tana
nevertheless finds it necessary to state 'Sheloshah Megalchin' - to rule out
removing the hair by means of ointment, which is not called 'Gilu'ach'.
(c) There is no specific Pasuk requiring a Metzora to shave with a razor (or
something like it). We cannot learn it with a 'Binyan Av' from ...
1. ... the Levi'im - because they also require waving (in all directions),
which a Metzora does not.
(d) It is not correct to say that the Mitzvah of waving does not pertain to
a Metzora at all - because although the Nazir himself is not waved, his
2. ... a Nazir - because the Korban of a Nazir requires loaves.
(a) We refute even the suggestion that we learn Metzora from a combination
of Nazir and the Levi'im on the grounds that we cannot learn a stringency by
Metzora from them - because a Metzora has the leniency that a poor man may
bring birds instead of animals (which they cannot do).
In the Mishnah in Makos, the Rabbanan restrict the prohibition of shaving
one's beard with a razor. According to Rebbi Eliezer - he is even Chayav if
he uses a plane or tweezers.
(b) Rava reconciled this Beraisa with the Beraisa that we quoted earlier,
which declines to learn the Din of razor by a Nazir from a Metzora (implying
that we know it by a Metzora and not by a Nazir) - by establishing that
Beraisa according to the Rabbanan, and this one, according to Rebbi Eliezer
(as we shall now proceed to explain).
(a) From the combination of the two Pesukim "u'Fe'as Zekanam *Lo
Yegaleichu*" (written in connection with the Kohanim), and "*ve'Lo Sashchis*
es Pe'as Zekanecha" (written in connection with every Jew) - they learn that
one is only Chayav for shaving one's beard with a razor, which both destroys
down to the skin (to preclude scissors) and is called 'Gilu'ach' (to
preclude a plane and tweezers).
(b) The Rabbanan know that (in spite of the above La'av) a Kohen who is a
Metzora must nevertheless shave his beard - because the Torah writes
"Yegalach es Kol Se'aro ... ve'es Zekano", and by means of the principle
'Asei Docheh Lo Sa'aseh'.
(c) Despite the fact that the prohibition for Kohanim to shave their beards
with a razor is also an Asei ("Kedoshim Yih'yu") as well as a Lo Sa'aseh,
and bearing in mind the principle 'Ein Asei Docheh es Lo Sa'aseh va'Asei',
the Asei obligating a Metzora to shave nevertheless overrides the La'av of
"Pe'as Zekanam Lo Yegaleichu" together with "Kedoshim Yih'yu" - because they
are Isurim that do not pertain to everybody (i.e. only to men and not to
women), whereas the Asei of a Metzora shaving is.
(a) The Rabbanan know that "Zekano" comes to *obligate* the Metzora to shave
his beard with a razor exclusively, rather than to *permit* him to do so,
without precluding a plane or tweezers - because that we would know from a
'Kal va'Chomer' from Nazir: If a Nazir, who performed an Isur, is permitted
to shave with a razor, how much more so a Metzora, who is performing a pure
(b) The 'Isur' to which the 'Kal va'Chomer' refers is - either the minor
Isur that every Nazir transgresses when he abstains from what the Torah
permits, or, if we are learning from a Nazir Tamei (who is also obligated to
use a razor), the Isur of a Nazir rendering himself Tamei.
(c) According to the Rabbanan, we make a 'Kal va'Chomer' from Nazir, not
from his obligation to shave with a razor (seeing as in the Beraisa on the
previous Daf, the same Rabbanan knew about Metzora before they knew about
Nazir) - but from the fact that he is permitted to shave off his Pei'os.
(a) This proof is refutable however, on the grounds that we cannot learn a
Kohen Metzora from a Nazir Yisrael - because Kohanim were given many
additional Mitzvos, so we can never learn any concessions that apply to
non-Kohanim to Kohanim (Tosfos).
(b) The other objection that we might have to learning a Kohen Metzora from
a Nazir - is that whereas a Nazir is only transgressing a La'av, the Kohen
Metzora transgresses a La'av and an Asei (as we explained earlier) Tosfos.
(c) The second (irrefutable) proof that the Metzora is obligated to use a
razor is from Resh Lakish's principle - that whenever it is possible to
perform an Asei without contravening a La'av, then one is indeed not
permitted to contravene the La'av.