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Previous daf Nedarim 13
1) [line 8] CHATAS
If a person commits a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would be
Chayav Kares if he would have committed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must
bring a Korban Chatas. He brings a female goat or female sheep as his Korban
2) [line 8] ASHAM
[I] ASHAM VADAI
The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The
animal offered is usually a ram that costs at least two Sela'im. The first
three involve transgressions:
1. ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring
a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of
Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16).
[II] ASHAM TALUY
2. ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in
Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return
what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive
atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).
3. ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah
Charufah (e.g. a slave who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of
them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether
he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).
4. ASHAM NAZIR: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a
Nazir who becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus (Bamidbar 6:12).
5. ASHAM METZORA: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by
a Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12).
If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for
which one must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham
Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im. If he later discovers that he did
indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides
temporary atonement during the period of doubt.
3) [line 19] AVODAS KOCHAVIM - Idol worship
(a) It is prohibited to derive any benefit from objects used in the service
of Avodah Zarah, as is learned from the verse in Devarim (7:26). Anyone who
benefits from them receives Malkos two times: once for the prohibition from
the above verse and once for the prohibition from the verse in Devarim
(b) Objects of Avodah Zarah themselves and the utensils that are used in
their service must be destroyed, as it states in Devarim (12:2, 7:5).
(c) The utensils that are used in the service of Avodah Zarah have a lesser
degree of Tum'ah (mid'Rabanan) than an Avodah Zarah itself. They can make a
person Tamei through touching (Maga), but they do not transfer Tum'ah
through Masa (carrying) or Even Mesama (see Background to Shabbos 82:34).
(d) An animal before which a person bows down, worshipping it as an Avodah
Zarah, is unfit to be brought as a Korban. It is not prohibited for personal
use since live animals do not become prohibited when worshiped.
(e) With regard to Hatfasah of Nedarim, an object of Avodah Zarah is
considered a Davar ha'Asur, and as such the Neder is not binding.
3) [line 19] OROS LEVUVIN - hides of animals with holes at the location of
the heart [are forbidden because the heart had been cut out while the animal
was alive, for idolatrous purposes. As opposed to normal objects of Avodah
Zarah, Oros Levuvin are in the category of Tikroves Avodah Zarah (items used
as part of the sacramental ritual of idolatry), and are forbidden to the
extent that even Bitul (annulment -- see Insights to Sukah 31:2) does not
retract their status.]
4) [line 20] SHEKATZIM U'REMASIM - forbidden animals and reptiles mentioned
in Vayikra 11:29-30 (see Background to Shabbos 107:5). A Sheretz, even if it
is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) is an Av ha'Tum'ah. It makes a
person or object Tamei through Maga (contact). If a person becomes Tamei by
touching a Sheretz, he can immediately go the Mikvah. After nightfall he
becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.
5) [last line] MI'CHELAL LAV ATAH SHOME'A HEN
(a) From a statement expressing a negative, the counter positive can be
implied and vice versa. This is a Halachic concept included in the laws of
Tena'im (stipulations). It also applies in other places where speech is
needed, such as Nedarim.
(b) This principle is the subject of a Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and
Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Meir rules that we cannot infer the counter expression
from his statement, but rather, it must be explicitly articulated. The
Gemara (Shevu'os 36a) discusses whether Rebbi Meir holds that the opposite
cannot be inferred only in cases of Mamon or even in cases of Isur.