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Nidah 7

1) [line 3] B'HOCHACHOS SHANINU - we are talking about a case where there is a definite Safek

2) [line 5] B'NISH'AN - we are dealing in a case where he leaned on him
3) [line 5] ZAV (HESET HA'ZAV)
A person who moves or is moved by a Zav, becomes a Rishon l'Tumah.

4) [line 8] BENEI HA'KENESES - those who eat their Chulin b'Taharah

5) [line 10] TEVULAS YOM
Although a person immerses himself in the Mikvah, his purification is not completed until the sun sets. During this time he is considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and if he touches Terumah it becomes Pasul.

6) [line 10] KOTZAH - separates
7a) [line 11] KEFISHAH - a flat vessel without a rim
b) [line 11] ANCHUSAH - board
8) [line 12] MAKEFES - she places it next to the dough

*9*) [line 16] HAI TEVUL YOM, KEIVAN D'LO METAMEI VADAI CHULIN ... - The Gemara means to say that the Chachamim were not Gozer that a Tevul Yom can me Metamei Chulin ha'Tevulin l'Chalah even if he *certainly* touched it, since a Tevul Yom can never bring any Tumah to Chulin

10) [line 23] PESICHA - mixed


11) [line 21] REBBI ELIEZER, SHEMUTI HU - (a) Rebbi Eliezer was put in Cherem - see Bava Metzi'a 59b (RASHI);
(b) Rebbi Eliezer was a disciple of Shamai (TOSFOS)

12) [line 23] LO MATZINAN MACHINAN BEHU - we are not able to prevent them

13) [line 25] HA'MEKASHAH, KAMA TISHAFE - one woman who has pains of childbirth (and sees blood), how much time must her pain stop ...?

14) [line 25] U'SEHEI ZAVA (YOLEDES B'ZOV)
By Torah Law a woman who has given birth may immerse in a Mikvah after her Yemei Tumah (7 days for a male and 14 for a female), even if her flow of blood has not stopped.
This law does not apply if she had been a Zavah when she *gave birth*. Under such circumstances, she may not immerse in a Mikvah until her flow completely stops and she counts seven clean days. (According to some, she must count seven clean days after her Yemei Tum'ah have ended (7 days for a male and 14 for a female) in order to become Tahor -- Nidah 29b; 37a)

The Halachah is that a Zav who emitted Zivah twice or three times does become Tahor from his Zivah until 7 "clean" days pass, during which he does not emit any Zivah. He is supposed to check himself twice every day; once in the morning and once towards evening. If he emits Zivah during those days, he must begin his count all over again (Rambam, Hil. Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1). The same law applies to a Zavah Gedolah (a woman who had a discharge of blood on three consecutive days, at a time that is not part of her normal menstrual cycle).

16) [line 31] ACHOREI KELIM
If liquids which are a Rishon or Sheni l'Tumah come in contact with vessels, they make them Tamei mid'Rabanan. In order to remember that the Tumah is only mid'Rabanan, the Chachamim stipulated that if the liquids only touched the outside of a wooden or metal vessel, only the outside becomes Tamei, and not the inside. There is no Tumah mid'Oraisa with such a property. (If a liquid, or anything Tamei for that matter, touches the outside of an earthenware vessel, the vessel does not become Tamei at all -- Rashi Chagigah 22b.)

The reason for the decree of the Chachamim that liquids that are Rishon and Sheni l'Tumah are Metamei vessels, is because there are liquids which are Metamei vessels mid'Oraisa; namely the bodily liquids of a Zav or Zavah that are an Av ha'Tumah.

The liquids that are an Av ha'Tumah are the Zov of a Zav, the semen of any person, the blood of a Nidah, Zavah and Yoledes, and the saliva and urine of a Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes

18) [line 39] D'ALULIN L'KABEL TUMAH - they are susceptible to receive Tumah

19a) [line 41] AZNO - its handle
b) [line 41] OGNO - its rim

The earlier generations would base the Halachah on their *own* understanding of the Mishnah, which they put into the Mishnayos. The later generations would base the Halachah on their evaluation of *all* the different opinions as to the meaning of the Mishnah. Therefore, we follow the Halachah set down by the later generations, and not the Halachah stated in the Mishnah.

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