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Nidah 11

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 11b DH Dilma Kav'ah:
"shekeshe'Yichlu Yemei Tohar, Hava Lei Veses Esrim"
These words apparently belong above, before the word "ul'Rebbi"
(Aruch la'Ner, Mei Nidah)

1) [line 6] KAFTZAH - she jumped
*2*) [line 28] TZERICHAH LIHEYOS BODEKES - The Gemara (11b) explains that all the Bedikos of the Mishnah were only performed by a woman who often handled Taharos

3) [line 28] HA'NIDAH -
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for a period of seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she can immerse in a Mikvah to become Tahor. (The current practice is for a woman to count seven clean days whenever she sees a drop of blood.)

In Vayikra Perek 12 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah of childbirth. When a woman gives birth, there is a waiting period before she can go to the Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That period is divided into two terms:

(a) During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this term lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this term last for two weeks. At the end of this time, she may go the Mikvah.

(b) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood which she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this term, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This term lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female eighty days.

(c) At the end of the above two terms, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she goes to a Mikvah and brings a Korban Yoledes. A woman would bring a male sheep as an Olah and a dove or pigeon as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she would bring 2 pigeons or 2 doves .

(The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar.)

6) [line 30] PA'AMAYIM - twice
7) [line 30] SHE'HI OVERES - she prepares herself (Bartenura)

*8*) [line 31] SHE'HEN OCHLOS BI'TERUMAH - The same Bedikah would apparently be done by a non-Kohenes who was eating Kodshim Kalim. From the Mishnah it appears that Chazal required a Bedikah only before *eating* Terumah, since it is punishable with Malkus; before *touching* Terumah or Kodshim it was not necessary to do a Bedikah (Mishnah Acharonah, in his first explanation)

9) [line 32] BI'SHAS AVARASAN MI'LE'ECHOL BI'TERUMAH - when they stop eating Terumah

By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for a period of seven days. The next eleven days are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for *one or two* consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Tamei. She is prohibited to her husband and makes what she touches a Rishon l'Tuma'ah. If she does not experience bleeding the following night (i.e., the second or third night, depending up whether she bled one or two days), she may immerse in a Mikvah in the morning and she is Tahor. (However, if she experiences bleeding during the remainder of the day, she is retroactively Tamei for that day and her Tevilah did not make her Tahor.)

If she has a show of blood for *three* consecutive days, the woman becomes a Zavah Gedolah and is Tamei. She is prohibited to her husband and makes what she touches a Rishon l'Tuma'ah. In order for her to become Tahor, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah and (if she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day) she is Tahor to her husband and no longer a Zavah. After nightfall she may eat Terumah, but she must bring a Korban Zavah on the following day to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim.

12a) [line 37] MA'AYAN SASUM - when she had not been menstruating previously
b) [line 37] MA'AYAN PASU'ACH - when she had been menstruating previously

13) [line 38] MEVAKESHES LEI'SHEV AL DAM TOHAR - the day preceding the days of Yemei Tohar


When an anonymous Mishnah is followed by a Mishnah with conflicting opinions, the Halachah is not like the anonymous Mishnah

15) [line 15] SHE'LO PASKAH MACHMAS TASHMISH - she did not have Tashmish without seeing blood

16) [line 10] ACHARAN - clouded them, distorted them

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