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Nidah 29

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 29b DH Beis Shamai l'Ta'amaihu [at the end of the page]:
The words "mi'Yom she'Ba'as Lefaneinu" belong above, after the words "Kol Leilya"

A stillborn is not considered to be Halachically born with the emergence of its head; only when the entire body emerges is it considered born such that the next child is exempt from the Bechorah.

*2*) [line 33] K'TIKUNO L'CHAYIM - The head of the Nefel must leave the womb whole, as the head of a live child appears (RASHI DH Ela Amar, see Insights)

3) [line 35] TZEDA'AV - its temples
4) [line 36] KARNEI ROSHO - the end of the skull bone, above the back of the neck

In Vayikra Perek 12 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah of childbirth. After a woman gives birth, there is a waiting period before she can go to the Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That period is divided into two terms:

(a) During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this term lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this term last for two weeks. At the end of this time, she may go to the Mikvah.

(b) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood which she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this term, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This term lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female eighty days.

(c) At the end of the above two terms, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a dove or pigeon as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 pigeons or 2 doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

6) [line 40] BESHE'LO HUCHZEKAH UBRAH - we had not established that she was pregnant

7) [line 43] PASHUT HU - a "simple" offspring; not a Bechor
8) [line 45] METANFOS - emit a liquid substance


9) [line 1] HEVI'AH LEFANEINU SHELOSHAH SHEVU'IN ... - After the woman came before us, she did not see blood for three weeks. Subsequently, for ten weeks she saw blood every day of every other week (i.e. weeks #4,6,8,10,12) and saw no blood at all during the intervening weeks (#5,7,9,11,13) - see Chart

*10*) [line 3] MESHAMESHES L'OR SHELOSHIM V'CHAMESH - The *only day* she is permitted to her husband throughout the 13 week period, is the evening of the day #35.

If a woman gives birth when she is a Zavah Gedolah, she must count seven clean days before immersing in a Mikvah. There is a Machlokes as to whether these days may even be counted during her Yemei Tum'ah. She may not immerse until after her Yemei Tumah have passed.

12) [line 20] L'URTA TESHAMESH - let her be permitted to her husband the previous evening

*13*) [line 22] EIMAR YOLEDES ZACHAR HI - That is, she may have given birth to a male child seven days ago - or to a female child 14 days ago

*14*) [line 23] B'YEMAMA, EIMA YOLEDES ZACHAR B'ZOV HI - The rule is as follows: All Tevilos are normally performed after nightfall except for the Tevilah of a Zavah, which is performed by day

Although a woman immerses at the end of her days of Tumah, she does not become Tahor to eat Terumah and Kodshim or to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until the end of her days of Tohar. During this period of time, she is referred to as a Tevulas Yom Aruch. Beis Shamai is of the opinion that upon completion of this period she must immerse again in a Mikvah in order to eat Terumah and enter the Mikdash, whereas Beis Hillel argues. (According to everyone, she must immerse before eating Kodshim.)

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