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Nidah 31

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 31a [line 39]:
The words "u'Chsiv ... "ha'Me'azreni Chayil" (Tehilim 18:33)"
should be "u'Chsiv ... "va'Te'azreni Chayil" (Tehilim 18:40)"
(as is found in Ein Ya'akov, Yoma 47a)

[2] Rashi 31a DH Tzaba:
The words "l'Tzov'o b'Yorah Achas"
should be "l'Tzbo'a b'Yorah Achas"

1) [line 1] "MI'ME'EI IMI ATAH GOZI" - "from the innards of my mother, you drew me out (you made me take an oath)" (Tehilim 71:6)

2) [line 3] "GAZI NIZRECH V'HASHLICHI" - "Cut off your hair (of Nezirus) and cast it away" (Yirmeyahu 7:29)

*3*) [line 3] DI'CHSIV "GAZI NIZRECH V'HASHLICHI" - The word "Gazi" in this verse is being translated as "Shevu'ah". To what Shevu'ah is the verse referring?

(a) MAHARSHA - to the Shevu'ah of the fetus. Yirmeyahu is telling them to *keep* the Shevu'ah of the fetus ("Nizrech") and abandon their evil way.

(b) ARUCH LA'NER - Yirmeyahu is recommending to the evil people that they should make Shevu'os to keep the laws of the Torah (- see Nedarim 8a) and Nezirus, in order to strengthen their resolve.

4) [line 7] B'MADOR HA'TACHTON - lit. in the lowest section of the womb; fig., at the lowest level of development. The time in the womb is a parable that alludes to life in general . See Maharal, Chidushei Agados

5) [line 11] "ASHER USEISI BA'SESER, RUKAMTI B'SACHTIYOS ARETZ" - "that I was made in concealment, I was knit together in the nethermost earth (in the lowest part of the womb)" (Tehilim 139:15)

6a) [line 19] MELUBAN - polished, well formed
b) [line 20] MEZURAZ - of strong vitality
7) [line 23] KELASTER PANIM - countenance

8) [line 25] PUTZ MILCHA, V'SHADI BISRA L'CHALBA - If you take away the salt ( the preservative) you will have to throw the meat to the dogs. If the Neshamah (which preserves the body) departs, the body rots.

9) [line 26] CHEMES TZERURAH - a sealed flask
10) [line 30] NOSEN ZERONIM B'ARUGAH - plants various seeds in a furrow.
11) [line 32] TZABA NOSEN SAMEMANIM L'YOREH - a dye-master puts various pigments into a dye-vat.

12) [line 33] "ODECHA HASH-M, KI ANAFTA BI; YASHOV APECHA, U'SENACHAMENI" - I will thank you HaSh-m because you appeared to be angry with me ( by giving me a splinter); let your anger turn away from me, and comfort me (since the splinter saved my life" (Yeshayahu 12:1)

13) [line 37] "ORCHI V'RIV'I ZEIRISA" - lit. "You confine my path and my repose, and you are familiar with all my ways" (According to the Gemara "You have selected the choicest of the issue and seed from which I was formed ...") (Tehilim 139:3)

14) [line 38] HA'BARUR SHE'BAH - The choicest [of the seed]
15) [line 40] ZEIRISANI - You "winnowed" me (refined me)
b) [line 40] V'ZEIRAZTANI - and You filled me with vitality
16) [line 41] REVI' IY'OSEIHEM - times of their marital relations

*17*) [line 43] DI'CHSIV, "NE'UM HE'GEVER SHESUM HA'AYIN" - As it states, "The speech of the man whose eye is open (sees well) Since *eye* is singular , we learn that his other eye was blinded recently. (Tosfos DH Shesum)


18) [line 8] "HEN B'AVON CHULALTI; UV'CHET YECHEMASNI IMI" - literally, "Behold, in iniquity I was fashioned; and in sin did my mother conceive me" (Tehilim 51:7); allegorically, "B'AVON" can be understood to mean "at a time of iniquity, (when my mother was about to be forbidden as a Nidah)" and "UV'CHET" can be understood to mean "at a time of purification"

19) [line 14] "SHILCHU CHAR MOSHEL ERETZ" - "Send a fattened lamb as a gift to the ruler of the land" (A play on the word for male-Zachar-is"Zeh Char," this is a gift. This verse is brought to prove that when a boy is born, peace comes to the world. (Yeshayahu 16:1)

20) [line 18] AD D'AMRAH MEZONEI - until she prays for food

*21*) [line 20] SHA'ALU TALMIDAV ES REBBI SHIMON BAR YOCHAI - The students asked Rashbi these questions because he used to look for the underlyng reasons for the Mitzvos (ARUCH LA'NER)

22) [line 25] KORBAN SHEVU'AH
A person can make an oath by using a name of or a reference to Hash-m and swearing to do or not to do something.

(a) If he unintentionally transgresses his oath, he is required to bring a Korban Shevu'ah. The Korban Shevu'ah is a Korban Oleh v'Yored.{copy K.O.Y. from 28a #8}

(b) If one willingly transgresses his oath, he gets Malkos. However, if he swears *to do* something and doesn't do it, he does not get Malkos (RAMBAM Hil. Shavu'os 4:20)


23) [line 39] KUSIM
The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. Our Mishnah follows the opinion that they were true converts. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of gentiles.

24) [line 39] ARISASAN - their cribs


(a) A Nidah, a Yoledes, a Zav and a Zavah are Avos ha'Tum'ah. They can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These objects are then called Mishkav and Moshav, or the *Tachton*, of a Nidah, Yoledes, Zav or Zavah. Any object (besides earthenware utensils and foods) may become a Mishkav or Moshav if it was made for lying or sitting upon. A person who is touching or carrying a Mishkav or Moshav is Metamei the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (aside from earthenware utensils) that he may be touching. These items get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.
Utensils or clothes which lie above the Nidah, etc. also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Nidah, etc.

(b) A person who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent. *Tachtono*, the objects underneath him, have the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah.

26) [line 41] BI'AS MIKDASH (TUMAS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV) It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash or eat Kodshim if he touched an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(a) If he knew that he was Tamei before and after the transgression, but forgot at the time he transgressed, he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two doves or two turtle-doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)

(b) If he willingly transgresses, he is liable to Kares and lashes (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20)

27) [last line] REBBI ME'IR CHAYISH L'MI'UTA
Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that the we do not follow the majority if there is a Safek, but rather we consider the matter to still be in doubt. (According to one opinion in Tosfos, Rebbi Meir only considered it a Safek on a rabbinical level, for according to the Torah we *can* rely on a Rov - Tosfos Chulin 12a DH Pesach, 86b DH Semoch. Tosfos in Bechoros 19B DH b'Ruba implies that Rebbi Meir's law is mid'Oraisa, but it pertains only to a Ruba d'Leisa Kaman - see entry #11b.)

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