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Nidah 46

1) [line 10] SHUMA - mole-hairs

*2*) [line 12] HA GUFA KASHYA - That is, although it is explicit in the Beraisa that Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabanan argue if "Lifnei ha'Zeman" is like "l'Achar ha'Zeman", the Gemara wants to assert that there is a Machlokes Tana'im among Rabanan themselves, since the Halachah follows the Rabanan.

3) [line 32] MEMA'ENES
If a man marries off his daughter when she is a minor, the marriage is considered a Torah marriage. If the father dies, the girl's mother, along with her oldest (adult) brother, may marry her off, but this marriage is only d'Rabanan. When the girl grows up, but before she has the signs of being an Na'arah (when two hairs grow), she has the option of annulling the marriage. This annulment is called Mi'un.

4) [line 33] CHOLETZES
If a married man dies childless, his widow must undergo Yibum (the marriage of a dead man's brother with his wife) or Chalitzah (a ceremony in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum) Devarim 25:5-10. Although the widow must be at least three years old and one day in order to perform Yibum, she must be a Gedola (when two hairs grow after she reaches twelve and a day) in order to perform Chalitzah.

5) [line 37] SHEMA NASHRU - perhaps they fell out
*6*) [line 41] V'CHI KA'AMAR RAVA CHAZAKAH, L'MI'UN - That is, it is not a complete Chazakah; it only makes it into a Safek, and we are Machmir that she may not do Mi'un.

*7*) [line 45] HIKDISH V'ACHAL, LOKEH - The Amora'im argue if "Mufla ha'Samuch l'Ish" is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. If it is mid'Rabanan, a person does not receive Malkos for violating the vow of an eleven-year-old girl or a twelve-year-old boy. If it is mid'Oraisa, a person receives Malkos for violating the vow. Rav Huna's opinion is not only that "Mufla ha'Samuch l'Ish" is mid'Oraisa, but that even the minors themselves receive Malkos for transgressing their own vow, even though a minor is not liable for punishment elsewhere.

8) [line 46] BAL YACHEL
The laws of Nedarim (vows) are described in the Torah in Ba'Midbar 30:2-17. Bal Yachel is the law which prohibits a person who makes a vow from breaking his vow. If, for example, a person takes a vow not to eat a certain food, as soon as he eats the smallest amount of that food, after being warned by two witnesses not to, he gets Malkos.


9) [line 2] ZADON SHEVU'AH
A person can make an oath by using a name of or a reference to Hash-m and swearing to do or not to do something.

(a) If he unintentionally transgresses his oath, he is required to bring a Korban Shevu'ah. The Korban Shevu'ah is a Korban Oleh v'Yored.{copy K.O.Y. from 28a #8}

(b) If one willingly transgresses his oath, he gets Malkos. However, if he swears *to do* something and doesn't do it, he does not get Malkos (RAMBAM Hil. Shavu'os 4:20)

10) [line 7] MUFLA SAMUCH L'ISH
The Mishnah on Daf 45b specifies that we check the vows of a girl during her twelfth year, and a boy during his thirteenth year. These years are Samuch, or next to, the age when children become adults. If the child in question knows the significance of Nedarim, that their laws were dictated by Hash-m, he is called a Mufla Samuch l'Ish. There is a disagreement among the Rabanan if this child's vows have the status of Torah vows (for which the transgressor may get Malkos), or d'Rabanan vows.

14) [line 44] SEDER OLAM - the earliest comprehensive chronicle of Jewish history, written by Rebbi Yosi Ben Chalafta (circa 130 c.e.)

15) [line 45] YERUSHAH RISHONAH U'SHNI'AH YESH LAHEN, SHELISHIS EIN LAHEN - the first two times that Benei Yisrael conquered Eretz Yisrael (in the days of Yehoshua and Ezra) were called "Yerushah" (inheriting) and they needed to sanctify the land; the third time is a continuation of the second inheritance and does not need a special santification

16) [last line] NIDME'AH - that was mixed with Terumah in a proportion that makes it prohibited to anyone that is not a Kohen (the Terumah was more than one percent of the Chulin into which it was mixed)

17) [last line] NISCHAMTZAH BI'SE'OR SHEL TERUMAH - that was leavened with sour dough of Terumah

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