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Nidah 47

1) [line 1] CHALAH
(a) Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Ba'Midbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Challah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of grain. An amount about half that much requires Challah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.
(b) Since verse 18 uses the word "b'Vo'achem" (when you come) and not the usual "Ki Tavo'u" when it describes entering the land of Israel, Chalah differs from the other Mitzvos that apply to the Land. The other Mitzvos took effect only after the seven years of conquest and the seven years of apportionment. Chalah, however, was separated as soon as they entered the Land.

2) [line 1] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed himself in a Mikvah, and must wait for the sun to set in order to complete his Taharah. His level of Tumah is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah. If he touches Terumah, it becomes Pasul and must be burned.

3) [line 14] SHEVA SHE'KAVSHU V'SHEVA SHE'CHALKU - the seven years during which they conquered Eretz Yisrael and the seven years during which they divided the land (in the time of Yehosua)

4) [line 20] V'CHI ASKINHU EZRA - and when Ezra brought them up (from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael) 5a) [line 22] PAGAH - a fig before it starts to ripen
b) [line 22] BOCHAL - a fig about to ripen
c) [line 22] TZEMEL - The Gemara explains that this is an abbreviation for "yaTZEsah MELe'ah" (she went forth in fullness)

A father has the right to annul the vows of his daughter under certain circumstances. As long as she is not married, he may annul them until she becomes a Bogeres (age 12 and up). If the father married her off when she was a minor, the father *and* the husband must annul the vows for them to be considered annulled.

7) [line 27] KEMET - fold of skin
8) [line 28] MISHE'YATU - when they fall on the chest
9) [line 29] PITOMES - the area that surrounds the nipple
10) [line 30] UKATZ - nipple
11) [line 43] MEYACHED LAHEN - would designate a husband for each of them from his slaves
12) [line 44] MACHLIF LAHEN - would switch his male slaves from one female slave to another
13) [line 45] "IZDAHARU MI'YISRAEL" - "Make sure you stay away from Jews!" (since a Shifchah Kena'anis is forbidden to them)

14) [line 48] MISHE'YISKASHKESHU - (O.F. batant) striking (of bells), i.e. when they are very large

15) [line 49] MISHE'YACHSIF - when it darkens
16) [line 49] CHOTEM - (a) the tip of the Ukatz (ARUCH);
(b) the place where the Pitomes meets the Ukatz (TOSFOS HA'RAOSH)

17) [line 49] AZKUNAH LAH - she has already matured
18) [line 50] MISHE'YAFTZIL - when it splits, appears wrinkled
19) [last line] MISHE'TAKIF HA'ATARAH - when the nipple gets thicker and taller, as it is surrounded (by flesh)

20) [last line] MISHE'NISMA'ECH - when it gets softer


21) [line 7] KEIVAN SHE'MEGADELES, MISMA'ECH V'HOLECH - as she grows, the Kaf gets softer and softer
22) [line 11] CHATZER TZORIS - a courtyard that is common in Tzor (Tyre) which has a guardbooth at the entrance

23) [line16] ECHAD POSE'ACH V'ECHAD NO'EL - one guard opens the courtyard and a different guard closes it

24) [line 25] AILONIS A woman who is incapable of conception. This word is derived from the word "Ayal", a ram, which is a male and does not have a womb (Kesuvos 11a)

25) [line 27] SARIS - an impotent man
26a) [line 34] I KACHISH - if he is lean/weak
b) [line 34] AVARYUHA - make him hearty
27) [line 34] I BARI - if he is hearty
b) [line 35] AKCHASHUHA - make him lean/weak

*28*) [line 36] ME'ES L'ES - This phrase, according to Rashi, teaches us two points: (1) We do not start counting years with Rosh ha'Shanah;
(2) One day in a year is not enough to be considered the passing of a year - - see Insights

29) [line 43] KODSHIM
Animals that are designated to be sacrificed are called Kodshim. Many times the Torah specifies a certain age for these animals. Other times the *name* used to describe the animal connotes a specific age.

30) [line 43] BATEI AREI CHOMAH
Houses from a city which was walled at the time of Yehoshua's conquest of Israel. If a person sold a house which was in one of the Arei Chomah, the Torah gives him the right to purchase it back within *a year* of selling it. If he does not buy it back during that time, it becomes the permanent property of the buyer.

31) [line 44] EVED IVRI
There are two ways that a Jew can be bought as a slave. Either he may sell himself because he is destitute, or he may be sold by Beis Din to pay back a theft. In either case he is obligated to work for his master for only six years. (Shmos 21:6)

32) [line 44] SHEBE'VEN VESHEBE'VAS - "of the boy and of the girl" (a) the years which apply to Erchin (see 48a #1) (b) the years which apply to our Mishnah; when a man or a woman reach twenty without signs of maturity

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