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Nidah 50

1) [line 4] NEGA'IM
When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, puts him in quarantine (Hesger), and returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. A person who is *confirmed* to be Tamei due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark is called a Metzora Muchlat.

2) [line 13] B'SHIVEVUSEI - in his neighborhood
3) [line 14] D'HAVAH KA'DAYIN DINA - who judged court cases
4) [line 23] GABEI HILCHESA D'DINEI - together with the laws of court matters

5) [line 24] MA'ASROS

(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.

(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon. One tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.

(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.

6) [line 25] TUM'AS OCHLIN
All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey. Nivlas Of Tahor is an exception. It does not have to become wet or touch any source of Tum'ah to be called Muchshar (ready to become Tamei).

7a) [line 30] NISHMAR - kept in one's possession
b) [line 30] LEKITASO K'ECHAD - the entire crop is harvested at one time
c) [line 30] MACHNISO L'KIYUM - he puts it into storage

8) [line 31] SEFICHEI SATIM V'KOTZAH - safflower (which produces a red dye) and woad (a plant that produces blue dye) which grew on their own from the remainder of the previous crop

9) [line 32] KEMEHIM, PITRIYOT - types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels and truffles

*10*) [line 35] IM HAYU BAHEM SHUMIM U'VETZALIN, CHAYAVIN - If these *Yerakos* included garlic and onions, the garlic and onions are obligated in Ma'aser

11a) [line 35] MALBENOS BETZALIM - rectangular onion-patches; alt., rows of onions
b) [line 35] SHE'BEIN HA'YEREK - that are planted between vegetables
12) [last line] ULSHIN - endives

*13*) [last line] ULSHIN SHE'ZAR'AN MI'TECHILAH LI'VEHEMAH - Although this ruling is discussing Taharah and has nothing to do with our Mishnah, the sequel to this statement (on Daf 51a) is related to our Mishnah. This is why the Gemara discusses it here.


14) [line 1] TZERICHOS MACHSHAVAH - one must intend to eat it in order for it to be classified as a food and to receive Tum'as Ochlin

15) [line 1] MACHSHEVES CHIBUR - intention to eat the plant when it was still "attached" (in the ground)

16) [line 3] NIVLAS OF TAHOR
The only food that is Metamei mid'Oraisa while being eaten is Nivlas Of Tahor (a kosher bird that died or was killed without Shechitah). It is only Metamei while in the Beis ha'Beli'ah (esophagus) during the process of being swallowed. It is then Metamei the person eating it and any clothes or vessels that he is touching. (Once it is swallowed, the person remains Tamei, but is only Metamei food and drinks, i.e. he is a Rishon l'Tumah).

17) [line 5] EINAH TZERICHAH HECHSHER - they become Tamei automatically without any preparation or outside cause (i.e. they do not have to become wet or touch anything Tamei)

18) [line 7] GOZAL - a young pigeon
19) [line 8] HA'ROM - the sky

20) [line 9] TARNEGOLES SHEB'YAVNEH - the hen that died in Yavneh, which the Chachamim were Metamei because of the Machshavah of the Kusim

21) [line 10] TARNEGOL BARA HAVAH - it was a species of wild chicken
22) [line 10] ACHICHU ALEI - they laughed at him
23) [line 13] TARNEGOLES SHE'MARDAH - a hen that flew off to the wild
24) [line 14] D'IVRA'I MI'MARAH - it became wild regarding its master (i.e. it ran away)
25) [line 15] TARNEGOLTA D'AGMA - "the hen of the marshes"
26) [line 20] GIRUSA - a bird that is definitely Tamei, probably the moor-hen
27) [line 20] GAS - wine-press

28) [line 21] KUSI - a Samaritan
The King of Ashur brought the people of Kuta to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Tana'im disagreed as to whether their conversion was whole-hearted and valid, or whether it was under duress and invalid. The Chachamim later found them worshipping an image of a dove and gave them the status of non-Jews.

29) [line 26] SHE'KEN EINAH YOREDES L'CHACH - "because such a law does not apply to it" (the Gemara will explain whether we are referring to a law of Machshavah or Hechsher

*30*) [line 33] HA'CHELEV - Chelev of a slaughtered kosher animal does not need Hechsher, since the blood of its Shechitah is Machshir it. (TOSFOS DH Lo Garsinan Gabei)

*31*) [line 34] ELA BI'KEFARIM, U'MI IKA L'MAN D'AMAR - It is clear from the words of Rebbi Yochanan Ben Nuri that he does not require Machshavah for a bird even in Kefarim. The Gemara is asking, why do the *Chachamim* mention that the bird fell into a Gas? Since it was in a Kefar, it should require Machshavah regardless.

33) [line 39] GATO ME'ASATU - the wine-press into which it fell made it loathsome

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