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Nidah 51

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 51b [line 30]:
"Yesh she'Yesh Lo Shevi'is, v'Ein Lo Bi'ur"
These words should be preceded and followed by a colon.

[2] Gemara 51b [line 41]:
"Yesh she'Yesh Lo Senapir, v'Ein Lo Kaskeses"
These words should be preceded and followed by a colon.

1a) [line 13] HECHSHER SHERETZ LO BAYA - they are automatically Tamei without touching a Sheretz or any other source of Tum'ah
b) [line 14] HECHSHER MAYIM BAYA - they have to touch water to enable them to receive Tum'ah

2) [line 21] SHE'SOFAH L'TAMEI TUM'AH CHAMURAH - it eventually is Metamei a stringent Tumah, i.e. when a person eats it, it is Metamei the person and his clothes - - see Background 50:6

3a) [line 27] SI'AH - (O.F. poliol) pennyroyal, a kind of mint
b) [line 27] EZOV - hyssop
c) [line 27] KORANIS - (O.F. sadree) savory

*4*) [line 33] V'HACHI KA'AMAR, IM HE'CHATZER MESHAMERES PEIROSEHA... - That is, the Chatzer was not watched by a *person* specifically; rather, its fruit was guarded by the Chatzer's walls and gate.

5) [line 40] REISHIS HA'GEZ
Every time a flock of sheep are shorn, its first shearings are given to the Kohen, as stated in Devarim (18:4) "ve'Reishis Gez Tzoncha Titen Lo."

6) [line 40] MATANOS
Whenever a person slaughters an ox, sheep or goat (which is not Kodshim), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw [the last of a cow's four stomachs]. (Devarim 18:3)

(a) The ZERO'A consists of the two upper limbs of the right foreleg, from the knee to the top of the shoulder blade
(b) The LECHAYAYIM consist of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw to the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue
(c) The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev
7a) [line 47] PERET
Individual (one or two) grapes which fall during the harvest may not be reclaimed by the owner of the vine but must be left for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "*u'Feret* Karmecha Lo Selaket, le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam"
b) [line 47] OLELOS
Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "ve'Charmecha Lo *Se'olel*... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam"
c) [line 47] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19)

8a) [line 51] SHEVES - (O.F. aneid) dill
b) [line 51] CHARDAL - mustard


9) [line 4] D'AVID L'TA'AMA - that is used as a spice
10) [line 6] KOSHT - costus, the root of a herb that grows in Kashmir
11) [line 6] CHIMUM - (O.F. piretre) pyrethrum, a type of chrysanthemum
12) [line 7] TI'AH - aconite, a plant with a poisonous root
13) [line 7] CHILTIS - assa foetida, an umbelliferous plant used as a resin, or whose leaves are used as a spice and for medicinal purposes

14) [line 7] PILPELIM - peppers (peppercorns, from which the spice is ground, as opposed to bell peppers)

15) [line 7] CHALAS CHARI'A - a lozenge made of saffron or safflower

16) [line 8] KESEF MA'ASER
The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, it may be redeemed, in which case the money is brought to Yerushalayim and used to purchase food. If it is redeemed by the owner, he must add a Chomesh. If it is redeemed by others, it is redeemed according to its value. The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kadosh like Ma'aser Sheni.

17) [line 15] KAMACH - a Persian dairy sauce

18) [line 28] BI'UR
(a)The fruits that grow in a Shemitah year must be treated as ownerless and anyone may pick them. (This does not exclude the owner of the field).
(b) One who harvests a crop of Shemitah fruit may only store it as long as that fruit is available to wild animals. This is learned from Vayikra 25:7. At the time that it is unavailable in the wild, he must perform Bi'ur. This includes removing all of that fruit from storage, placing it in a public domain and declaring it Hefker (Halachically ownerless) in front of three Jewish men. These men may even be the owner's friends, such that he is in the position to reclaim the fruit from Hefker.

19) [line 28] SHEVI'IS
The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that (1) they must be considered ownerless. Anyone may come in to any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. (2) The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. (3) The Torah also requires that they be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.
The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

20) [line 30] ALEH HA'LUF SHOTEH - the [edible] leaves of the wild Luf
21) [line 30] DANDANAH - mint
22) [line 31] IKAR HA'LUF SHOTEH - the [inedible] root of the wild Luf
23) [line 37] KASKESES - scales
24) [line 37] SENAPIR - fins
25) [line 39] TELAFAYIM - hooves

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