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Nidah 54

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 54b [lines 36, 37]:
The words "l'Tamei Adam *ul'Tamei* Vegadim"
should be "l'Tamei Adam *l'Tamei* Vegadim"
(as is found at the end of the Amud. Tosfos (Eruvin 27a, DH Kol)
also brings this Girsa.)

1) [line 9] GARGERAN DI'TENAN, ASUR - The blood that a woman sees on the last (11th) day of Yemei Zivah and on the following (12th) day do not combine with each other, since the second show of blood is the beginning of a new period and she begins anew to count her days of Nidah. Nevertheless, the Mishnah (72a) states that a man who has relations with her on the following (12th) day, after she immerses in a Mikvah, is a "Gargeran" (glutton). The normal practice for a Zavah Ketanah is to wait for a full day (Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom) after she sees blood before she may have relations. Rav Sheshes derives from our Beraisa that when the Mishnah says that such a person is a Gargeran, it implies that his action is prohibited.


2) [line 19] BESAR HA'MES
A k'Zayis of a *Mes* (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room). If a person becomes Tamei by touching a *Mes*, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah) sprinkled on him.

3) [line 20] NI'A - (O.F. crac) mucus of the nose

4) [line 21] SHERETZ
A Sheretz, even if it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact). If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz, he can immediately go the Mikvah. After sunset he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

5) [line 21] NEVEILAH
A Neveilah which is the size of a k'Zayis makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying). At the time that a person is carrying a Neveilah, any clothes or vessels (besides pottery) that he touches become Tamei as if the Neveilah itself had touched them. If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Neveilah, he can immediately go the Mikvah. After sunset he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

6) [line 29] MADVAH - her flow

*7*) [line 33] V'SU HA DI'TINAN, HA'MAPELES - This is not really a new question. It is a proof to the previous question, that even dried blood is Metamei (TOSFOS).

8) [line 34] YAVCHUSHIN - Drosphilla, a small fly whose larvae feed on fruit and decaying plants; fruit fly

9) [line 35] NIMOCHU - they dissolved

10) [line 36] MISHKAV U'MOSHAV

(a) A Zav, Zavah and Nidah are Avos ha'Tum'ah. They also cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These objects are then called Mishkav and Moshav. Any object (besides earthenware utensils and foods) may become a Mishkav or Moshav if it was made for lying or sitting upon.
(b) A person who is touching or carrying a Mishkav or Moshav is Metamei the clothes that he is wearing and other utensils (aside from earthenware utensils) that he may be touching. These items acquire the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.
11) [line 40] EVEN MENUGA'AS
A stone from a house that was declared to be a Bayis ha'Menuga. (See Background to Erchin 20 #10 for a description of a Bayis ha'Menuga and how it becomes Tamei).

12) [line 42] METAMEI B'VI'AH
When a person is declared a Metzora Muchlat, he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.

The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora in it.

  Ohel of a Mes Tzara'as or Metzora
(a) A person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters A person becomes Tamei only if most of his body enters
(b) Even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters When entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei only when he enters entirely
(c) A Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling A Mechitzah of ten Tefachim is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah
(d) The house or room is Tamei whether the Mes is placed there or is just passing through The house or room is Metamei only if the Metzora stops there, and is not just passing through

13) [line 45] U'MINAH - using the reasoning of the Beraisa itself, I can prove that blood is not Metamei Mishkav and Moshav

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