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Nidah 71

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 71a DH Bi'asusa:
The words "Shome'a *Nivhal*"
should be "Shome'a *v'Nivhal*" (RASHASH)

[2] Rashi 71a DH b'Chayav uv'Moso:
The DH should be *Safek* b'Chayav uv'Moso (M. KORNFELD)

[3] Gemara 71b [line 15]:
"Eima Seifa"
These words are unnecessary (because they imply a question, whereas the
Gemara is only explaining the Mishnah,) as the Maharsha explains. These
words were not originally part of the text of the Gemara, but were added to
our edition of the Gemara based on an emendation of the Maharshal. (See R.
Betzalel Rensburg. See also Aruch la'Ner, who suggests a justification for
the Girsa of the Maharshal.)

[4] Gemara 71b [line 30]:
"l'Minga Bah *me'Avrai*, Ka Mashma Lan"
The word "me'Avrai" belongs above, before the words "Salka Da'atach Amina".
The Gemara there should read "v'Korei Lah Shem *me'Avrai*" - i.e. without
touching it (MAHARSHA, based on an old edition of the Gemara)

[5] Hagahos ha'Gra
The period is unnecessary and should be removed. (The intention of the Gra
is to erase all of the words from "Chutz" until the colon,
since they do not apply to our Sugya)

1) [line 11] BI'ASUSA D'MALACHAH D'MOSA - fear of death (lit. the Angel of Death)

2a) [line 13] PACHADA TZAMIS - anxiety constricts the Makor so that no blood comes out
b) [line 14] BI'ASUSA MERAPYA - sudden fright loosens and opens the Makor and makes blood come out

3) [line 18] AL GABEI NIDOS MESOS - that were used by women who died when they were Nidos

4) [line 25] REVI'IS DAM
The blood that comes out of a dead body is Metamei b'Ohel if there is a Revi'is of it in one location.

5) [line 29] YOSHEVES AL HA'MASHBER - a woman giving birth
*6*) [line 34] MAKOR, MEKOMO TAMEI - This is not the normal Machlokes that is cited each time the Gemara states Makor, Mekomo Tamei. (See TOSFOS DH Makor and Insights)

7) [line 36] DAM TEVUSAH
When there is a doubt as to whether blood came out while the person was still alive or after he died, it is not Metamei mid'Oraisa. The Rabanan decreed that it is Tamei. There are various opinions as to the scenario which creates Dam Tevusah. See Insights.

8) [line 46] METAFTEF L'GUMA - dripping into a hole
9) [last line] HA'TIPAH SHEL MISA - a drop of blood that came out after the person's death


10) [line 3] TZALUV - a man who has been crucified (a common form of execution in the time of the Romans)

11) [line 4] SHOSES - flows
12) [line 8] MECHALCHELAH - penetrates

13) [line 11] MAGA TAMEI MES

All objects belong to one of three categories:

(a) sources of Tum'ah
(b) objects that can become Tamei
(c) objects that cannot become Tamei
All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."

When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. (Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon; even if touched by a Sheni.)

Chulin cannot be made Tamei mid'Oraysa by a Sheni l'Tum'ah. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi l'Tum'ah in regular Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. Although Terumah which is a Shelishi cannot make other Terumah Tamei, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei."

Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) can become a Revi'i l'Tum'ah (and Chatas, or objects associated with the Parah Adumah, can become a Chamishi.) Revi'i of Kodesh and Chamishi of Chatas are also called "Pasul."

A person who often eats Kodshim (e.g. Korbanos Shelamim or Todah) and wants to train his household in the Mitzvos that apply to the consumption of Kodshim, or a person who wants to train himself in these Mitzvos, may decide that he wants all of the Chulin in his house to be eaten Al Taharas ha'Kodesh (as if they were Kodshim). He must be careful that no Tum'ah comes in contact with his food. There is a Machlokes as to whether his Chulin may become a Shelishi or a Revi'i l'Tum'ah, like Kodshim, or not. Aba Shaul, who rules that they are not like Kodshim, holds that they can only become a Sheni l'Tum'ah, like normal Chulin.

15) [line ] MASNISIN MANI, ABA SHAUL HI - That is, the later ruling mentioned in the Mishnah includes *2* points: (a) Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas ha'Kodesh are *not* like Kodesh; (b) a Tevul Yom is dealt with more stringently, and is equated with a Rishon, like Aba Shaul says.

16a) [line 21] KOTZAH - separates
b) [line 21] MAKEFES - she places it next to the dough
17) [line 30] ME'AVRAI - See Girsa section, #4

19) [line 36] HA'RO'AH YOM ACHAD ASAR

(a) By Torah Law, a woman who sees blood is a Nidah for a period of seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. The next eleven days are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Temei'ah. If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse in a Mikvah the following morning but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must *watch* the following day to see whether or not she sees blood

(b) If she sees blood on the 11th day, even though she is a Zavah Ketanah, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue as to her status, since she has no possibility of becoming a Zavah Gedolah (seeing blood on three consecutive days).

20) [last line] METAM'IN MISHKAV U'MOSHAV -
(a) A Nidah, a Yoledes, a Zav and a Zavah are Avos ha'Tum'ah. They can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These objects are then called Mishkav and Moshav, or the *Tachton*, of a Nidah, Yoledes, Zav or Zavah. Any object (besides earthenware utensils and foods) may become a Mishkav or Moshav if it was made for lying or sitting upon. A person who is touching or carrying a Mishkav or Moshav is Metamei the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (aside from earthenware utensils) that he may be touching. These items get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(b) Utensils or clothes which lie above the Nidah, etc. also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Nidah, etc.

(c) A person who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent. *Tachtono*, the objects underneath him, have the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah.

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