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Nidah 11



(a) A woman does not fix a Veses for jumping, if she jumps on three different days and sees blood each time, because there is no such thing as a Veses due to something that she does (which the Gemara refers to as an Ones), as we shall see.

(b) Jumping does fix a Veses, in conjunction with a fixed day, or number of days.

(c) When the Gemara explains the Beraisa 'Kol she'Tika'vana be'Ones' etc. to mean that it does not fix a Veses for days alone, it is referring to a case when she saw twice on a fixed day on which she also jumped. And then, on the third time, she jumped before the due day, but did not see till the due day arrived.
What the Beraisa now means, is that the day alone does not fix a Veses - but it does fix a Veses if she also jumped, even though she jumped, not on the same day, earlier.

(d) The second Lashon, which appears to disagree with the first, says that if she jumped on a Monday and saw blood, jumped again on a Monday and saw blood, and then saw on a Monday without having jumped, her Veses is fixed on Mondays, for days alone.

(a) Even a woman to whom Dayah Sha'atah applies, is nevertheless obligated to examine herself every day.

(b) A Nidah is exempt, because to what advantage will she examine herself - she is Temei'ah for seven days, whether she sees or not?
And by the same token, what is the point of a 'Yosheves al Dam Tahor', who is Tehorah whether she sees or not, examining herself?

(a) A 'Yosheves al Dam Tohar' and a Besulah, both of whose blood is anyway Tahor, do not require 'Eidim' when they are Meshamesh.

(b) A woman needs to examine herself in the morning in order to ensure that, should she see blood during the day, the Taharos which she handled the night before will not be declared Tamei (mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah); and in the same way, her examination at night will ensure that her Taharos of the day will have a Chezkas Taharah.

(c) A Kohenes is also obligated to examine herself before she eats Terumah, and, according to Rebbi Yehudah, also after she has finished eating Terumah.

(a) According to Resh Lakish, a woman cannot fix a Veses whilst she is a Nidah; according to Rebbi Yochanan, she can.

(b) According to Rebbi Yochanan, why should a woman be exempt from examining herself during her days of Nidus? Why should she not have to examine herself, in case the sighting will be the first of three which will fix her Veses?

(c) Rebbi Yochanan will answer that he only counts a sighting during the days of Nidus as part of a Veses, when the woman already saw twice on that date, but she is already a Nidah when she sees then for the third time; because we will say that the earlier day on which she saw and which made her a Nidah, was due to her excess blood, but really her time to see, was on the later date - the date of the fixing of her Veses.
But if the first times that she saw she was a Nidah (the case in our Mishnah), then even Rebbi Yochanan will agree that they do not combine with the third time that she sees on the same date, to fix her Veses.

(a) The Gemara thought that, when the Mishnah exempted a 'Yosheves al Dam Tohar' from examining herself, it must be speaking about the last day of the days of Tum'ah. Why"
Because otherwise, what is the Chidush? It is obvious that a woman is not obligated to examine herself on a day when she is Tahor anyway?

(b) According to Rav, the Mishnah is fine, because, since the blood that she sees during the days of Tum'ah and the days of Taharah are from the same source, there really is no point in examining herself, because even if she sees blood, she is Temei'ah today, and Tehorah tomorrow - since that is what the Torah decreed.
But according to Levi, who maintains that the source of blood during the days of Tum'ah and that of the days of Taharah are different, why should she not examine herself on the last day of the days of Tum'ah, maybe she will find the fountain of Tum'ah still open, and, according to Levi, the days of Taharah do not begin until the fountain of the days of Tum'ah shuts.

(c) According to Levi, Rebbi taught this Stam Mishnah, but followed it with a Machlokes later - and we have a principle 'Stam ve'Achar-Kach Machlokes, Ein Halachah ki'Stam'.

(d) The Gemara eventually establishes that the Mishnah is even speaking during the days of Taharah. What is the Chidush?
The Chidush is that, even though she is automatically Tehorah, she should nevertheless examine herself, because she might see three times during her days of Taharah (that is to say, during the eighty days of Yemei Taharah of a girl), and fix a Veses.

(e) Therefore our Mishnah teaches us the futility of such an examination, according to Levi, because a Veses fixed during the time that her 'fountain is Tahor' will not be effective for a time when her 'fountain is Tamei'; and according to Rav, a Veses fixed when she is Tehorah will not be effective for when she is Temei'ah.




(a) Beis Hillel hold that a girl whose time to see blood has not yet arrived, and who gets married, is Tehorah until the wound (caused by the breaking of her Besulim) heals.

(b) Rav Gidal Amar Shmuel holds that Beis Hillel only say that, as long as she sees blood during Tashmish, but if even once, she fails to see blood during Tashmish, she will be Temei'ah the next time she sees (It is not clear why Rav Gidal is not simply echoing Beis Hillel's very words?)

(a) If the color of the blood changes, then she is Temei'ah anyway, because the change is a proof that the wound has cured, and that what she is now seeing, is not Dam ha'Makeh, but Dam Nidus.

(b) According to the last statement, why should a Besulah who has not yet seen blood, be exempt from using 'Eidim' during Tashmish? Maybe she will discover that the color of the blood has changed?

(c) We only contend with the change of color of the blood (to declare Temei'ah even a girl who was seeing blood because of the wound caused by the breaking of her Besulim) as long as there was no Tashmish prior to the change, like in the Reisha of the Mishnah. If there was, like in the Seifa, then she remains Tehorah, because we then say that it was the Tashmish that caused the change of color.

(d) The reason that she nevertheless does not need to examine herself before Tashmish - when one could hardly ascribe a change in color to the Tashmish - is because the examination *before* Tashmish is only secondary to the examination *after* Tashmish (strictly speaking, a woman is Tehorah to her husband, and requires no examination).

(a) A woman is obligated to examine herself after Tashmish, to ensure that, assuming she does not see blood, the Taharos that she handled before Tashmish will not be declared Tamei, should she see blood the following evening- 'mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah'.

(b) The examination before Tashmish is to ensure that she is Tehorah for her husband.

(c) Since the Mishnah speaks about morning and afternoon, it is obvious that it must be referring to being Tehorah for Taharos and not for her husband, since it is forbidden to be intimate during the day.

(d) From the Mishnah later, which states that every woman has a Chezkas Taharah for her husband, we could have thought that 'that' only applies to a woman who has a Veses, but a woman who does not, is forbidden to her husband without an examination. Therefore Shmuel's statement is necessary.

(e) The Mishnah nevertheless, needs to include a woman who has a Veses, to teach us that, even a woman with a Veses, is obligated to examine herself *before* Tashmish (for her husband) since she is obligated to do so *after* Tashmish (for Taharos).

(a) Shmuel did not really repeat himself. He said his Din only once, and someone else quoted him slightly differently - drawing on Shmuel's original statement.

(b) A man who leaves his wife in a state of Tum'ah, must assume upon his return, that she is Temei'ah, unless he hears from her to the contrary.

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