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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 61



(a) If the blood is found under the woman in the middle, then all three women are Temei'os; whereas if it is found under either the inner or the outer woman, then she and the woman next to her are Temei'os, but not the woman who is furthest away from her.

(b) The previous Mishnah, which declares all three women Temei'os in all cases, speaks when the women are huddled together, whilst this Mishnah speaks when they are slightly apart.

(a) The innermost woman is Tehorah - when the blood is found under the outer one - only when they got into bed from the foot of the bed, in which case, the blood cannot possibly have come from the woman who is on the inside (since at no time, did she not pass by the spot where the blood was found); but if they all climbed into bed from the outside of the bed, in such a way that they all passed over the spot where the blood was later discovered, then they are all Temei'os, even the innermost woman, too.

(b) If one or two of the women examined themselves and found that they were Tehoros, then the remaining women or woman are Tehoros

(a) If all three women examined themselves , and found that they are Tehoros, then they are all three Temei'os. Rebbi Meir compares this to a piece of corpse that was lost underneath one of three piles of stones. If, after searching under all three piles, the Tum'ah is not found, then all three piles are considered Tamei.

(b) The Rabbanan agree with Rebbi Meir in *our* case, and declare all three women Temei'os, but they do not agree with him by the piles of stones. There, they maintain, one only needs to search up to the rock, or to virgin soil (where it is obvious that nobody has been buried there), no further - and the piles are Tahor. Why the difference?
Because in the case of the piece of corpse, it is feasible that a raven carried it away, but in the case of the three women, where did the blood go?

(c) The Rabbanan reject Rebbi Meir's proof from the tree with the Chezkas Tum'ah, and Rebbi Yossi's proof from the cave of trenches (where the Tum'ah was later revealed), because *they* are speaking in a case when a thorough search was made and nothing was found, whereas in those two cases, it would appear that the searchers did not search properly.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua soaked sheets in water, which he then spread out on the ground which they were examining; the Tahor soil, which was still virgin soil, did not absorb the water, and remained dry. But the Tamei soil, which was soft, became saturated.
Upon examination, they discovered a pit full of bones.

(a) The bones that they discovered were those of the many people whom Rebbi Yishmael ben Nesanyah murdered together with Gedalyah ben Achikam.

(b) Gedalyah was made to share the blame for his own murder, and the murder of all those who were killed with him, because he should have taken heed, when Yochanan ben Keire'ach warned him of the plot to kill him.

(c) Rebbi Tarfon declined to protect the Benei Gelila who came to him for protection from those who were chasing them - for ostensibly having murdered someone, on the grounds that, even though it was forbidden to accept Lashon ha'Ra, one was nevertheless obligated to suspect that it was true (in order to save others from harm (the very sin of which Gedalyah was guilty). So he declined to help them, in case the Lashon ha'Ra was true. Nor did he want to divulge their whereabouts, in case it was false. So he advised them to save themselves.

(a) Sichon and Og were brothers, sons of Achyah, the son of Shamchaza'i (one of the angels whom Hashem sent down to earth, when they vetoed the creation of man - to see whether *they* would fare any better).
Subsequently, they turned out to be more wicked than the man whose creation they had vetoed (on the grounds that he would be wicked).

(b) Moshe Rabeinu was not afraid of Og's strength. What he *was* afraid of, were the merits that he had earned, for - albeit with the wrong motivation - informing Avraham of his nephew Lot's capture, making him indirectly responsible for his recapture.

(a) According to the Tana Kama, if a bloodstain got lost in a garment, one washes it with the seven special 'spices' (to be listed later in the Mishnah), thereby negating it.

(b) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that one examines each 'Shechunah' (area of three finger-breadths) individually - should one fail to find any blood, the garment is Tahor (See Tosfos, d.h. 'Bodko').

(c) If Shichvas Zera got lost on a garment, then it depends on the age of the garment: If the garment is new, then he runs a needle backwards and forwards along it. Any Zera still on the garment will get caught in the needle (as the Zera is hard - as opposed to the rest of the garment, which is soft);
Whereas if it is an old garment, which has worn out and become thin with wear and tear, then he can just hold it up to the sun, and see where the Zera blocks the transparency.




(a) Selling to a non-Jew, a garment in which a thread of Kil'ayim got lost, is prohibited, because we contend with the possibility that the non-Jew will re-sell it to a Jew.

(b) It is forbidden to cover oneself with Kil'ayim in any way, and that includes using it as a saddle.

(c) One is permitted to use it as shrouds for a dead person.

(d) Some opinions forbid one to use Kil'ayim as shrouds, because, when the dead arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim, they will arise in the clothes in which they were buried.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns from "ba'Meisim Chofshi" that, once a person dies, he is Patur from fulfilling the Mitzvos (even vis-a-vis Techi'as ha'Meisim, i.e. he need not concern himself with what will happen then).

(b) Linen (in those days) did not accept dye. Consequently, to check for the lost linen thread, he would dye the garment; if the entire garment was properly dyed, then he would know that it must have been removed.

(c) The proof for this leniency is from the Rabbanan, who rule that, if one searched a pile of stones which was known to contain Tum'ah, but failed to find the Tum'ah, one may assume that a bird removed it (as we explained above in 3b).

(d) If someone added a linen thread to a woolen garment (or vice-versa), and then is unsure whether he removed it or not, the garment is permitted.
Why is that?
Because linen that was not combed and spun together with the wool, before being woven, is not forbidden by the Torah, only mi'de'Rabbanan, and the Rabbanan declared such a garment to be permitted.

9) 'Shu'a ' means that the wool and the linen are prepared and combed together; 'Tavuy' means that they are spun together, and 'Nuz' that they are woven together. If any of the three is missing, the garment is not Kil'ayim d'Oraysa.


(a) According to Rebbi Nasan bar Yosef, the Chachamim did not decree the Din of bloodstains on a colored garment, because the stains do not show up so well on them.

(b) Chazal issued a decree, at the time when Vespasian attacked Yisrael, forbidding Chasanim to wear crowns, and banning a type of bell-like instrument, which they used to play at weddings.

(c) They also wanted to issue a decree on bloodstains found on colored garments, but they decided against it (for the reason that we cited in (a)).

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