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Nidah 64



(a) A woman who sees one month on the fifteenth, the following month on the sixteenth, and the third month on the seventeenth, according to Rav, she has a Veses le'Dilug.

(b) According to Shmuel, she only has a Veses le'Dilug after three Dilugin, not after two!

(c) The Gemara initially thought that Rav follows the opinion of Rebbi, who holds that two times constitutes a Chazakah, whilst Shmuel follows that of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel who requires three for a Chazakah.

(d) According to Rav, the first sighting is counted in the three (in spite of the fact that it is not part of the Dilug); whereas, according to Shmuel, the first sighting is not counted.

(a) A woman who was used to seeing on the fifteenth, then changed one month to the sixteenth and then to the seventeenth, is permitted on the following sixteenth because, since she only saw once on the sixteenth, she breaks that sighting after not seeing once on that day. Whereas the fifteenth, on which she saw regularly, she has a Chazakah, which can only be broken after not seeing three times.

(b) The Beraisa does not count the first sighting of the fifteenth, because it belongs to her past Chazakah. Had she only seen on the fifteenth for the first time, she would have become forbidden already on the seventeenth of the third month. And that is why the Beraisa mentions 'Haysa Limudah' etc. (that her Veses was on the fifteenth).

(c) We would have thought that the Beraisa mentions 'Haysa Limudah', not to tell us that we do not count the first sighting of the fifteenth together with the other two, but that the fifteenth remains forbidden, even after *two* sightings which were not on the fifteenth.

(d) All three dates will be permitted, if and when she sees on the eighteenth day of the following month.

(a) Shmuel explains that the Beraisa which fixes the woman Veses through sightings on the twenty-first, the twenty-second and the twenty-third of consecutive months, speaks when she had a Veses on the twentieth, and had already seen on the twentieth of the previous month.

(b) Otherwise, why would the Beraisa have commenced with the twenty-first towards the Chazakah, and not with the twentieth, which is a more common example amongst the Tena'im (if only because it is shorter to write than the twenty-first).

(a) From our Mishnah, we only know that a woman must take into account a sighting that she sees, even though she sees it only once - when that sighting occurs during her days of Nidus (like the case in the Mishnah, when she changed from fifteen days after her Tevilah, to twenty), but not when she sees during her days of Zivus, on which she has a Chezkas Taharah. And that is what Rav Papa is coming to teach us.

(b) True, we know from our Mishnah that one does not require three sightings to break one or two sightings on a certain date. However, if not for Rav Papa, we would have thought that one sighting on a different date breaks one previous sighting, but that, for two sightings, she will require *two* different sightings. Rav Papa teaches us that *one* new sighting is sufficient to break the previous two sightings.

(c) Should a woman who has seen twice on a new day, and not broken three times from her original one, see again on her original day, she retains that date, and does not need to take into account the new one. Consequently, a woman whose Veses was on the twentieth, and who saw in Nisan on the thirtieth too, then in Iyar, she saw on the thirtieth but not on the twentieth, and in Sivan not at all, will retain her original Veses of the Twentieth when she sees on the twentieth of Tamuz, and may ignore the thirtieth.




(a) Just like with wine, there is red wine and black wine; there are vines which give a lot of wine, and there are vines which give only a little, writes the Tana, so too is it with Dam Besulim: Every woman has Besulim and has Dam; in some cases their blood is red etc.

(b) 'Durteki' is the acronym of 'Dor Katua' (a cut off generation); she is so named, because no wine by the one and no blood by the other means no fruit and no children (respectively).

(c) In the same way as dough is good for yeast, says the Tana of the Beraisa, so too, is blood good a woman.

(d) The more blood, says Rebbi Meir, the more children!

(a) Beis Shamai means that, a girl who has not yet reached the age of seeing blood, is permitted to do Tashmish for four nights, until Motzei Shabbos; even if she should see blood during that time, we assume it to be Dam Besulim, and she is still permitted to her husband.

(b) According to Shmuel, 'Ad she'Tichyeh ha'Makeh means that as long as she bleeds whenever she has Tashmish, it means that the wound of Besulim has not yet healed, and she is permitted - since the blood that she sees is that of a wound.

(c) Beis Hillel say that, a girl who is due to see, but has not yet seen, has until Motzei Shabbos four nights (from Wednesday night, since it was customary to get married on Wednesday).

(d) Even if she has already seen blood, Beis Hillel give her the whole night, and not just the Be'ilas Mitzvah.

7) 'Kol Zeman she'Nocheres' means like this: If whenever she stands, she sees blood, but when she sits, she does not, that is a sign that the wound of Besulim has not yet healed.


(a) Rav proves that according to Beis Hillel, Tashmish by day will not detract from the four nights, because Beis Hillel says 'until Motzei Shabbos' implying both by day and by night.

(b) Levi maintains that Bi'os by day will detract from those by night. The four nights of the Mishnah means four Onos - whether they are by night or by day.

(c) According to Rav, the Mishnah mentions 'four nights' only because it is Derech Eretz to be Bo'eil by night, and not by day, as we have learnt before.

(d) The reason that the Tana adds, until Motzei Shabbos is to teach us that it is permitted to Bo'eil on Shabbos, even a young girl (like in this case, whom has only had Tashmish twice, and) whose womb is therefore still narrow - the Chidush is that we are not worried that he may make a wound.

(a) If the blood had been Dam Besulim, then why did it not come with the first Bi'ah, Rebbi Chanina maintains?

(b) Rebbi Asi, on the other hand, argues that it may just have happened that he did Bi'ah without causing the Dam Besulim to flow - like Shmuel was able to do.

(c) However, Rebbi Chanina rejects Rebbi Asi's proof from Shmuel, on the grounds Shmuel was the exception, and it is too unlikely for anyone else to be able to emulate Shmuel's act, for us to contend with it.

(a) Rav said that we only give a Bogeres the night of her Be'ilas Mitzvah, and not four nights, like we give a Na'arah whose time to see has arrived.

(b) The above however, applies only to a Bogeres who has not yet seen blood; if she has, then we do only give her the Be'ilas Mitzvah.

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