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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 71



(a) How can we explain Beis Shamai as saying that fear brings on Nidus, when we have learnt in 'B'nos Kutim' that fear has the opposite effect of stopping the flow of blood?

(b) Fear, answers the Gemara (as in B'nos Kutim), stops the blood-flow; shock (as in our case) causes it to flow.

(c) The Beraisa says, with regard to a Zav, Beis Shamai also decreed that all men who die have the Din of Zavin. Now if the reason is the above one, then they could not be Zavin, because the Torah writes "mi'Besaro", from which we preclude a sighting that came through an Ones.

(d) Beis Shamai in fact, decreed on women who were not Nidos, on account of the live women, who used to be embarrassed when they saw that they would Tovel the clothes of women who had died Nidos, but not of those who died Tehoros. So Beis Shamai declared all women Nidos when they died.

2) Initially, they would Tovel the clothes worn by Zavin when they died. However, when Beis Shamai saw how embarrassed the men who were not Zavin became, they decreed that all men have the Din of Zavin when they die.


(a) Only *a Revi'is* of blood of a Meis is Metamei; So they added the Tumah of Nidus, which is Metamei even *be'Chol Shehu*.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah maintains that, since the blood moved only after her death, she is not Metamei because of a Kesem.

(c) The Rabbanan hold that the blood is Metamei even if it did move only after the woman died. Why?
Because according to them, the uterus *is Tamei* (to the point that any blood which touches it becomes Tamei - even blood that is not intrinsically Tamei). Rebbi Yehudah holds that it is *not*.

(d) Rebbi Yehudah agrees that a woman who is sitting on the birth-stool when she dies, has the Din of a Nidah, because the blood moved when she was still alive?

(a) The Tana Kama (Rebbi Yehudah) maintains that the blood which flowed from the woman who died on the birth-stool is Metamei be'Ohel. Rebbi Yossi holds that, since the woman was in the process of giving birth, all the blood must have already moved before she died. Consequently, this is not Dam Tevusah but Dam Nidus (Leidah), which is not Metamei be'Ohel. Whereas according to Rebbi Yehudah, since some of the blood may have emerged after she died, it is Dam Tevusah, and is Metamei be'Ohel mi'de'Rabbanan.

(b) The Rabbanan maintain that blood which might have possibly emerged entirely after the woman's death, is not Dam ha'Tevusah. but an ordinary Safek, which is Tamei in a Reshus ha'Yachid, and Tahor in a Reshus ha'Rabim.

(c) If we know for sure that the majority of the Revi'is (but not the entire Revi'is) of blood that flowed from a Meis, flowed after death, it is Dam Tevusah. If there is also a doubt that the majority of blood may have flowed *before* death, it is also Dam Tevusah.

(d) Dam Tevusah is Metamei even be'Ohel - mi'de'Rabbanan.

(a) According to the Rabbanan, if the blood dripped from the dying man, in a way that the first drops began to drip whilst he was still alive, then each successive drop become Bateil as it falls into the Tahor drops that have already gathered in the pit

(b) The Din of Dam Tevusah, according to the Rabbanan, will only apply when the blood *flowed* - not *dripped*.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah follows his own reasoning - namely, that blood is not Mevatel blood (because 'Min be'Mino Eino Bateil'); Whereas according to the Rabbanan, it *is*.




(a) A Tevulas-Yom-Aruch is a woman who gave birth and Toveled -after her one or two week period of Tum'ah - but who now has to wait for the night of the forty-first or of the eighty-first day to become Tahor (in order to eat Ma'aser Sheini), when she becomes a Mechusar Kipurim (who is forbidden to eat Kodshim until she has brought her Korban).

(b) A Tevul(as)-Yom is a Sheini le'Tum'ah, who makes a Shelishi li'Terumah and le'Kodshim, but has no effect on Chulin.

(c) 'Me'arah Mayim le'Pesach' means, that she is permitted to pour the water to be used to wash the Pesach, from one container to another but not to touch the water itself (because a Sheini le'Tum'ah is Metamei water, but not vessels).

(d) The Tana Kama forbids the Tevulas-Yom to touch the water, as we just explained, whereas according to Beis Hillel, she has the Din of someone who touches a Tamei Meis, who is a Rishon as regards Kodshim, but not as regards Chulin (or even as regards 'Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas ha'Kodesh'). Consequently, she is permitted to touch even the water.
The Tana Kama holds that 'Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Kodesh, ke'Kodesh Damu'. Consequently, the water (which was especially drawn for the Korban Pesach, and is therefore 'Chullin she'Na'asu Al Taharas ha'Kodesh') has the Din of Kodesh, which the Tevul-Yom is forbidden to touch; whereas according to Beis Hillel, 'Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Kodesh, ke'Chulin Damu', so she is permitted to touch the water.
The Tana who quotes Beis Hillel as saying that a Tevulas-Yom-Aruch has the Din of a Rishon (according to Beis Shamai. she even has the Din of an Av ha'Tum'ah) - vis-a-vis Kodshim - (and not just of a Sheini, like the Tana Kama holds), is Aba Shaul, who maintains that they gave a Tevul-Yom the Din of a Rishon (See Me'ilah 8a and 8b).

(a) 've'Kotzah Lah Chalah' means that she separates Chalah - but without actually declaring it 'Chalah' - yet. This is permitted, because 'Chulin ha'Tevulin le'Chalah, La'av ke'Chalah Dami' - and it remains Chulin until she actually declares it Chalah.

(b) One is obligated to separate Chalah from 'Mukaf' (what is next to it), and that includes the declaration of the Chalah. Practically, this means that, before one separates Chalah, or declares the separated piece of dough 'Chalah', the woman is obligated to fetch all the dough which she wants covered by the separation or by the declaration, and place it next to the piece from which she is about to separate Chalah, or which she is about to declare Chalah.

(c) The Ma'ayanos of a Tevul-Yom are Tahor. Consequently, if her spittle or blood fell on a loaf of bread, or on a leaf, they will remain Tahor.

(a) By 'at the end', Beis Shamai means on the eve of the eighty-first day. If she is a Kohenes, she requires Tevilah for Terumah (which she took her mind off), and if she is a Yisraelis (or a Kohenes, for that matter), she will require Tevilah before entering the Beis ha'Mikdash - which she will in any event have to do on the following day, when her Korban falls due.

(b) Even Beis Hillel agree that a Mechusar Kipurim, requires Tevilah before eating Kodshim. Consequently, after she has brought her Korbanos, on the following day, she will be obligated to Tovel.

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