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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 20

1) What caused Rav Ashi to declare that he was not competent to handle 'Mar'os Nidah'?


(a) Why did Raba bar Rav Huna need to say both 'Shachor ke'Chares' and 'Deyo'?

(b) Is the ink that we talking about here wet or dry?

(c) If the blood is as black as black wax or black grapes (or possibly a black plant called 'Anav'), is it Tamei or not?

(d) And what if it is as black as an olive, pitch or like a raven?

(a) What did Ula mean when he said 'ki'Levusha de'Siva'ah'?

(b) In which color shrouds did Rebbi Yochanan ask to be buried, and why?

(c) How do we then account for Rebbi Yochanan's own description of Shachor in our Mishnah - 'ke'Keilim ha'Ulyarin' (What are 'Keilim ha'Ulyarin')?

(a) On what sort of background should one inspect the red or the black blood of Nidus?

(b) If the principle that 'a paler shade is Tahor' extends to all colors of Tamei blood, then why does the Mishnah present it specifically by black blood?

According to Rebbi Ami bar Aba, in his first opinion, all the red colors are Tamei, whether they are deeper or paler, whereas black blood is Tahor either way.
(c) What then, is the point of the various reds stated by the Rabbanan?
In his alternative opinion, he almost switches the corollary between red and black.
(d) What is his alternative opinion?

(e) What did Bar Kapara do, that caused Rebbi Chanina to praise him for sticking to his guns regarding his lenient opinion?

5) The Keren Karkom with which we gauge Dam Nidus must not be dry. And not all its leaves are ideal for this purpose.
(a) How do we reconcile the four Beraisos, one of which says that we gauge specifically the bottom leaf, the other, the top leaf, the third Beraisa, the top leaf, and how much more so the bottom one, and the fourth Beraisa, the bottom leaf and how much more so the top one?

(b) Must its leaves be attached or detached?

The 'Meimei Adamah', to which we compare Dam Nidus, must be mixed, but be'Yad and not bi'Kli.
(c) What two connotations does this have?

(d) Why can we not resolve the quandary, with the Beraisa: 'ke'Shehu Badkan, Ein Badkan Ela be'Kos'?

(e) What is the meaning of 'bi'Mekomah Shaninu' learnt in the Beraisa regarding 'Meimei Adamah'?

Answers to questions


6) Rebbi Chanina examined Dam Nidus using dry earth.

(a) What did Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina comment on that?

(b) How did Rebbi Chanina cause Rebbi Yochanan to decide that he was *not* competent to examine 'Mar'os'?

(c) And how did he cause Rebbi Elazar to decide that he *was*?

(d) How did Rebbi Zeira learn from Raba (or Rava) that he should not inspect 'Mar'os'.

(e) Why did Ula refuse to inspect 'Mar'os' in Pumbedisa?

(a) Why did Rebbi Elazar bear the title 'Master of Eretz Yisrael'?

(b) Who was Ifra Hurmiz, and why did she send her 'Mar'os' to Rava?

(c) Why was her son not impressed with Rava's uncanny ability, and how did she proceed to prove her point?

(d) How was Rava saved at the sixtieth inspection by a fluke?

(a) Why did Rav Yehudah stop examining 'Mar'os'?

(b) In which cases did he continue to inspect, and why?

(c) On what grounds did Rav Yitzchak Brei d'Rav Yehudah declare the blood brought to him by Yalsa - Tahor, despite the fact that Raba bar bar Chana had already declared it Tamei?

(d) How was Rav Yitzchak permitted to believe Yalsa?

9) The Gemara asks whether a woman is believed when she says that a certain Chacham permitted blood just like this.
(a) Why is there no proof from the case of a woman who is believed to permit her own Dam, by claiming that she saw blood just like the blood of her friend, which the Chacham permitted?

(b) Why is there no proof for this Sha'aleh from Rav Yitzchak, who believed Yalsa, even though the blood with which she guaged was no longer there?

10) Rebbi examined a Mar'ah at night-time and declared it Tamei. The next morning, he re-examined it and declared it Tahor.
(a) Why did he change his mind?

(b) Why, when he subsequently declared it Tamei again, and expressed his worry that perhaps he had erred, is the Gemara surprised at the word 'perhaps'?

(c) How does the Gemara go on to establish the case in such a way that Rebbi may well not have erred?

(d) Why does the principle 'Ein le'Dayan Ela Mah she'Einav Ro'os' not apply here?

11) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosef would examine 'Mar'os' on a cloudy day, between the pillars of the Beis Hamedrash, in spite of the poor light (maybe the Gemara mentions this to teach us that anywhere else, he would not have done so. He only allowed himself this concession *there,* because, since it was the place where he had been learning, he knew that he would have Siya'ata di'Shemaya there.
How should one examine 'Mar'os' on a sunny day?

12) Our Mishnah requires the wine to which 'Mazug' is compared to be Yayin ha'Sharoni.

(a) Is Yayin ha'Karmeli also fit to use for this purpose?

(b) Does one use old wine or new?

(c) Why should the wine be in a glass goblet made in Teverya?

Hadran Alach, Kol ha'Yad!

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