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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 21

1) If a woman miscarries a piece of flesh (with blood according to the Tana Kama, according to Rebbi Yehudah, even without blood, she is Temei'ah.

(a) What sort of Tum'ah are we talking about, and how do we know that?

(b) What is the Din if she miscarries something that resembles a peel, hair, a piece of dust or tiny red insects?

(c) Is she Temei'ah if she miscarries something which resembles a fish or a large insect, if there is no blood?

2) According to Rebbi Meir, a woman is Temei'ah if she gives birth to a bird or any form of animal.
(a) What kind of Tum'ah is this, and how must she proceed?

(b) When is a woman Temei'ah Leidah according to the Chachamim?

3) According to Shmuel, Rebbi Yehudah is only Metamei a woman who miscarries a piece of flesh if it resembles the four Mar'os.
(a ) What is the Kashya on him from the Beraisa, which quotes the Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Chachamim as pertaining to a woman who miscarries a red, black, yellow or white piece of flesh? Why can we not say that the latter two are included because of the Chachamim, and that Rebbi Yehudah agrees with them?
Rebbi Yochanan disagrees with Shmuel.
(b) What does he hold and what additional Kashya will there be against him from the Beraisa?

(c) Why can we not say that the Beraisa mentions red and black on account of Rebbi Yehudah?

Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak concludes therefore, that the Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Chachamim is over whether we say 'Efshar li'Pesichas ha'Kever be'Lo Dam' or not - based on the same Machlokes between Rebbi Yehoshua and the Chachamim (Kashsah Shenayim etc.).
(d) What exactly, is the latter Machlokes and how does that fit into the Machlokes in our Mishnah?
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4) The second Lashon is almost a replica of the first. What is the difference between the two Leshonos?

5) Sumchus quotes Rebbi Meir as saying that, if a woman miscarries a piece of flesh, then one tears it open, and, if there is blood inside, then she is Temei'ah.

(a) In which point does Sumchus agree with them? On the other hand, what has Sumchus added to the opinion of the Rabbanan of Rebbi Yehudah, who said earlier that if there is blood with the piece, then she is Temei'ah?

(b) What does Rav Acha add to Sumchus?

According to Rebbi Binyamin, she may even be Temei'ah Leidah.
(c) Under which conditions would that be?
Rebbi Yochanan (quoting Rebbi Shimon) rules like Sumchus, but is more lenient than all the previous opinions.
(d) What exactly does he say?
(a) Which two things do we learn from "bi'Vesarah", and how can we learn two things from one Pasuk?

(b) How do we reconcile this with Rebbi Yochanan's ruling that if there is blood gathered in the piece of flesh, she is Temei'ah?

7) After quoting the Tana Kama, who says that if there is blood with the piece of flesh - besides any blood that might be inside the flesh - she is Temei'ah, but if not, she is not, the Beraisa adds 'Rebbi Eliezer Omer, 'bi'Vesarah ve'Lo bi'Shefir ve'Lo ba'Chatichah'.
(a) But isn't that the same as the Tana Kama?

(b) How does the Gemara initially learn the Machlokes between Rebbi Eliezer and the Chachamim, who add 'Ein Zeh Dam Nidah Ela Dam Chatichah'?

Abaye maintains that blood in a tube is Tahor according to all opinions.
(c) How then does he explain the Machlokes?
Rava learns that, according to everyone, it is not the way for a woman to see blood in the piece of flesh (just like it is not her way to see blood in a tube).
(d) Why then, does Rebbi Eliezer say that the blood is Temei'ah - and what will the Rabbanan hold?
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