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Pesachim 24

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 24b [line 3]:
"Asher Yiga b'Chol Tamei Lo Ye'achel" are unnecessary and do not appear in Rashi.

1) [line 10] EIMUREI KODSHIM KALIM - the parts of Kodshim Kalim that are offered on the Mizbe'ach, including certain fats, the kidneys and the diaphragm muscle.

2) [line 12] "V'IM YIVASER MI'BESAR HA'MILU'IM U'MIN HA'LECHEM AD HA'BOKER; V'SARAFTA ES HA'NOSAR BA'ESH, LO YE'ACHEL KI KODESH HU" - "If any meat of the Milu'im offering or any of the bread is left over until morning, you must burn the leftovers in the fire; it may not be eaten since it is holy." (Shemos 29:34)

3) [line 31] V'EIMA L'YACHUDEI LEI LAV L'GUFEI, HU D'ASA - perhaps the verse (Vayikra 6:23) was written to teach that if one eats the meat of Korbenos Chatas Chitzonos whose blood was brought into the Beis ha'Mikdash, he receives Malkos

4) [line 32] EIN LOKIN AL LAV SHEBI'CHELALOS (One does not receive Malkos for a general prohibition)
If one Lav prohibits many different acts, one who transgresses one of the prohibitions does not receive Malkos for his action. Malkos is administered only when a Lav prohibits just one specific type of sin.

5) [line 32] "V'HA'BASAR ASHER YIGA B'CHOL TAMEI LO YE'ACHEL, BA'ESH YISAREF; V'HA'BASAR, KOL TAHOR YOCHAL BASAR" - "Any [sacrificial] flesh that comes in contact with something Tamei may not be eaten; it must be burned in fire" (Vayikra 7:19)

6) [line 35] MA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a) After Terumah Gedolah (see Background to Eruvin 31:9:a) is removed from a crop, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon. One tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(b) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The second tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(c) During the first, second, fourth and fifth years the second tithe is Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, and the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. Food that is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.

7) [line 35] "[V']LO VI'ARTI MIMENU B'TAMEI" - "I have not consumed any of it (Ma'aser Sheni) while Tamei" (Devarim 26:14)

(a) A person is only liable to Malkos mid'Oraisa if he transgresses a *Lav* ("Azharah") of the Torah that is punishable by Malkos (e.g. that is not a Lav shebi'Chelalos, or a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh, etc.). A prohibition that is implied by a positive commandment is never punishable by Malkos.
(b) Similarly, a person is only liable to the death penalty for an action that is prohibited by a negative commandment, as stated by Chazal, "Lo Anash Ela Im Ken Hizhir" (Yoma 81a).
(c) Even though a Kal va'Chomer (a fortiori argument) is one of the thirteen methods for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah, the Halachos that are learned from them are not considered Azharos such that they may make a person liable to Malkos or the death penalty. An Azharah must be explicit in the Torah as a negative commandment or must be learned through a Hekesh or Gezerah Shavah. What is learned through these methods is considered as though it were explicitly mentioned (since they cannot be refuted based on logical grounds, like a Kal va'Chomer.)

9) [last line] PUTISA - a small non-Kosher fish or reptile
10) [last line] NEMALAH - an ant


11) [line 1] TZIR'AH - a hornet

12) [line 8] TUM'AS HA'GUF
(a) Regarding a *person* who became Tamei the Pasuk states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga," (Vayikra 12:4) from which we learn that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim.
(b) The punishment for transgressing this Lav intentionally is Kares. If one transgresses it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #167)

13) [line 9] TUM'AS BASAR
If an animal of Kodshim becomes Tamei, its meat is forbidden to be eaten as it states, "veha'Basar Asher Yiga b'Chol Tamei Lo Ye'achel." (Vayikra 7:19). The punishment for eating meat that is Tamei intentionally is Malkos. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #145)

14) [line 12] CHELEV CHAI - raw Chelev
15) [line 23] EIN SOFGIM ES HA'ARBA'IM - one does not receive 40 [- 1 = 39] lashes
16) [line 25] TUTIM - berries
17) [line 29] ZEI'AH B'ALMA HU - it is merely a secretion of the fruit

18) [line 30] KIL'EI HA'KEREM
It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim," - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field." (Vayikra 19:19), and "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem." - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited." (Devarim 22:9). If one sows Kil'ayim, the produce becomes prohibited ('Kidesh,' from the word in the verse, 'Tikdash').

19) [line 34] "[LO SOCHELU CHOL NEVEILAH, LA'GER ASHER BI'SHARECHA TITENANAH VA'ACHALAH O MACHOR L'NACHRI,] KI AM KADOSH ATAH [LA'SH-M ELOKECHA, LO SEVASHEL GEDI BA'CHALEV IMO.]" - "[You shall not eat anything that dies by itself. You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it. Or you may sell it to a non-Jew,] for you are a holy people [to HaSh-m, your Lord. You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk.]" (Devarim 14:21)

20) [line 35] "V'ANSHEI KODESH TIHEYUN LI, [U'VASAR BA'SADEH TREIFAH LO SOCHEILU, LA'KELEV TASHLICHUN OSO.]" - "And you shall be holy men to Me. [You shall not eat any meat that is torn by the beasts in the field; you shall cast it to the dogs.]" (Shemos 22:30)

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