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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Pesachim 80

1) [bottom of 79b] KEHAL BY PESACH TAMEH

(a) Bereisa: Half Tehorim, half Temeim, each half makes its own Korban Pesach.
1. One person tilts the balance to Tumah, and all would bring b'Tumah (En Korban Tzibur Chaluk).
2. [R. Eliezer b. Masia] One person cannot tilt the balance (based on Pasuk).
3. [R. Shimon] One Tameh Shevet is its own Kehal and brings its own Korban.
4. [R. Yehudah] One Tameh Shevet allows everyone to bring the Korban b'Tumah (En Tzibur Chaluk).
(b) [Rav] If the People are half-half, we make one person Tameh.
(c) Question: Why not let each half bring its own?
(d) Answer: There [already] was one more than half.
(e) Question: Then the majority is already Tameh?!
(f) Answer: Rav holds like R. Eliezer b. Masia (one is not enough).
(g) Question: Then, again, let each half make its own?!
(h) Answer: Rav holds of a combination of opinions above
1. The opinion of the Tana Kama (half-half cannot bring b'Tumah) plus the opinion of R. Yehudah (we do not split up a Tzibur).
2. Thus we send out one to become Tameh.
(i) Ulah holds that we send one Tahor person to a distance.
(j) Question: Why not make him Tameh with a Sheretz?
(k) Answer: He holds that we could still do the Korban Pesach b'Taharah even for a Tameh Sheretz.
(l) Question: Then make him Tameh Mes!
(m) Answer: He could then not bring a Korban Chagigah.
(n) Question: Sending him away does the same!
(o) Answer: He has Pesach Sheni.
(p) Question: The Tameh Mes can be ready by the end of Pesach to bring his Chagiga!?
(q) Answer: Ulah holds that the seven days to bring the Chagiga are substitutes for the first day, only if on the first day he was eligible.
(r) [R. Nachman] Ulah's suggestion is unworkable (nobody will be willing to go) and it is better to be Metameh.
(a) [Rav] If a majority are Tameh Zav and a minority are Tameh Mes, the latter do not bring either Korban Pesach.
1. They cannot bring Pesach Rishon because they are not the majority.
2. They cannot bring the Pesach Sheni since there was no Pesach Rishon brought.
(b) Question [Shmuel]: The Pasuk says "b'Moado?" (Pesach must be brought!)
(c) Answer [Rav]: It is no worse than Moado when all are Zavim.
(a) [R. Huna] If a majority are Tameh Mes and a minority are Tameh Zav, the latter do not bring either Korban.
(b) [R. Ada b. Ahava] They *do* bring Pesach Sheni.
(c) The one who holds En Tashlumin [R. Huna] would hold that Tumah is Dechuyah by a Tzibur.
(d) The one who holds Yesh Tashlumin [R. Ada b. Ahava] would hold that Tumah is Hutrah by a Tzibur.

(e) No, the argument is whether or not a Tameh Korban Pesach can generate a Pesach Sheni.
(f) [R. Mani b. Patish] If a third were Zavim, a third were Tehorim, and a third were Tameh Mes, the latter cannot bring either Korban.
1. The Korban Rishon because the Zavim combine with the Tehorim to make a majority of non-Tameh Mes.
2. The Pesach Sheni because the Zavim join them to make a majority who did not bring the Rishon, and majorities cannot bring Pesach Sheni.
(a) The Tzitz addresses Tumah in the blood which was discovered after the Zerikah but not in the owner.
(b) The same Din is found by Nazir as by Korban Pesach.
(c) The Tzitz addresses questionable Tumah (Tumas haTehom).
(a) The Mishna speaks in a case of Zerikah followed by Yedia, however, in a case of Yedia followed by Zerikah the Tzitz would not help.
(b) Question: The Bereisa teaches that the Tzitz helps even by *intentional* Zerikah (meaning that Yedia had preceded it)!?
(c) Answer #1 [Ravina]: This Bereisa is referring to intentionally caused Tumah of the blood, not to intentional Zerikah.
(d) Answer #2 [R. Shila]: The Bereisa speaks even of intentional Zerikah, but restricts the Tumah to unintentional Tumah.
1. Question: But the Mishna says that the Yedia came Tameh *after* the Zerikah (not like R. Shila's definition of Mezid)?
2. Answer: The Reisha was written as a parallel to the Seifa (by Tumas HaGuf where the Yedia must have followed the Zerikah), but, indeed, the Tumah could have preceded the Yedia in the Reisha.
(a) Question [Rami b. Chama]: Does the Tzitz address the Tumah of a Kohen [who is Tameh b'Tumas HaTehom] performing the Avodah for a Nazir or Korban Pesach?
1. Does the permissibility of Tumah apply to the owner?
2. Or does the permission apply to the Korban?
(b) Answer [Rava]: The permission applies also to the Kohen.
1. Bereisa: The Tumas HaTehom is only permitted by Tameh Mes.
2. Presumably this implies that it does not apply to Tumas Sheretz.
3. If this is speaking of a Nazir who became Tameh b'Tumas Sheretz, we have a *Pasuk* saying that this will not interrupt his Nezirus.
4. Rather, it must refer to one bringing a Korban Pesach.
5. This works according to the opinion that we could not Shecht a Korban Pesach for one with Tumas Sheretz.
6. However, if we hold that we could, then it would not be news to say that Tumas *HaTehom* of Sheretz is permitted.
7. Rather, it must refer to the Kohen, and the conclusion is as above that the permission applies to the Kohen, as well.
8. [R. Yosef]: No, the Bereisa implies that the permission does not apply to Tumas HaTehom of Ziva.
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