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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Pesachim 117


(a) [R. Chisda, citing R. Yochanan] Haleluyah, Kesyah and Yedidyah are an integral unit, not the combination of a word with the Shem.
(b) [Rav] Kesyah and Merchavyah are one unit.
(c) [Rabah] Merchavyah is the only unit in the group.
(d) Question: What is R. Chisda's opinion regarding Merchavyah?
(e) Answer: Teiku.
(f) Question: What is the status of Yediyah according to Rav?
(g) Answer: Yedid is Chol; Y-ah is Kodesh (combination).
(h) Question: What is Rav's opinion regarding Haleluyah?
(i) Answer: Rav reported seeing a Tehilim in which Hallelu and Y-ah were on separate lines (indicating a combination).
1. This argues with R. Yehoshua b. Levi who translated the Haleluyah as *many* Hilulim (a unit).
2. Elsewhere he taught that it is a combination.
(a) Question: Who instituted our Hallel?
(b) Answer: The Nevi'im instituted Hallel for every redemption.
(c) R. Meir taught (in the Bereisa) that David HaMelech wrote all of the songs of Tehilim.
(d) Question: Who instituted our Hallel?
(e) Answer: [R. Yosi, citing his son, R. Elazar] Bnei Yisrael wrote it when they emerged from the sea.
1. His contemporaries argue, saying that David HaMelech wrote it.
2. My son seems to be correct, as there must have been Hallel when Bnei Yisrael celebrated before David HaMelech.
3. Also, when idolatry stood tall (during the time of David) would not be the likely time to have written Hallel.
(a) [R. Eliezer] The praises in Tehilim regard David HaMelech's personal salvation.
(b) [R. Yehoshua] They pertain to national trials and salvation.
(c) [Chachamim] Some are personal (the ones written in singular) and others are national (the ones written in plural).
(d) Nitzuach and Nigun refer to the time to come.
(e) Maskil was said through a broadcaster.
(f) L'David Mizmor implies that the Shechinah rested upon him before his song.
(g) Mizmor l'David implies the reverse.
1. This teaches the principle that one's mood for receiving the Shechinah must be none other than the joy of Mitzvah.
2. This is further supported by the Pasuk by Elisha.
3. [Rav] The same joyous mood is needed for a matter of Halachah.
4. [R. Nachman] The same for a good dream.
5. Question: But Rav is cited as teaching that a scholar's mood must be awe are reverence, not joy!?
6. Answer #1: One refers to the teacher (joy); the other to the student (awe and reverence).
7. Answer #2: One refers to the teacher before beginning to teach (joy) and one while teaching (awe and reverence).
8. This is supported by the report that Rabah would say a light thought before beginning to teach but would commence his teaching with awe.
(a) Question: Who wrote our Hallel?
(b) Seven answers are given as to who called out "Lo Lanu" to HaShem and to whom the Ruach HaKodesh responded "l'Ma'ani, l'Ma'ani E'eseh."
(a) [R. Chisda] The (single) word Haleluyah (between two chapters) closes the prior chapter in Tehilim.
(b) [Rabah b. R. Huna] It is the start of a chapter.
(c) [R. Chisda] The scribe put the word in between the two chapters, as he was unsure where to attach it.
(d) [R. Chanin b. Rava] All agree to three instances where the Haleluyah clearly begins the next chapter.
(e) The experts on reading texts add two more instances.
(f) We might explain a dispute between Tana'im based on this issue.
1. Two Tanaim report the opinion of Beis Shamai differently.
(i) Hallel is said until Em HaBanim Semecha.
(ii) Hallel is said until B'Tzeis Yisrael.

2. Their difference may be attributed to the question of where to attach the word Haleluyah.
(g) [R. Chisda according to his opinion that the word closes the prior chapter] The first Tana did not say B'Tzeis Yisrael because he holds that "until" is inclusive, and he did not want us saying further.
(h) Question: Then why did he not say 'until the word Haleluyah?'
(i) Answer: We would not know which Haleluyah he was referring to.
(j) Question: Then let him say, 'until the Haleluyah of Em HaBanim!'
(k) Answer: It is, indeed, a difficulty.
(l) [Rabah b. R. Huna according to his opinion that the word opens the next chapter] The second Tana said B'Tzeis Yisrael because he holds that "until" is non-inclusive.
(m) Question and Answer sequence: as (h) to (k) above.
(a) [Rava] When praising for our redemption we use the past tense; when pleading for our deliverance we use the present tense.
(b) [R. Zeira] When acknowledging our Mitzvos we use the past tense; when requesting our Mitzvos, we use the future tense.
(c) [R. Acha] We are obligated to mention Yetzias Mitzrayim in Kidush (based on the Pesukim).
(d) In Shemoneh Esrei we conclude Matzmiach Keren Yeshuah, while after the Haftorah we conclude Magen David.
(e) [Resh Lakish] The sequence of the first Berachah of (and its closing with Magen Avraham) Shemoneh Esrei is based on the Pasuk "v'E'escha l'Goy Gadol..."
(f) [Rava citing the elders of Pumpedisa] The closing on Shabbos is always Mekadesh haShabbos; while on YomTov the closing is Mekadesh Yisrael v'haZemanim.
1. Rava was of the opinion that in prayer we should only say Mekadesh Yisrael, while only in Kidush we should recite Mekadesh haShabbos or on YomTov, Mekadesh Yisrael v'haZemanim.
2. Rava supplied both his their rationale...
(i) Shabbos stands on its own.
(ii) YomTov depends on Klal Yisrael to declare it Kadosh.
3. As well as his own.
(i) Out of deference to the community, we should always say Mekadesh Yisrael in any public prayer.
(ii) In (private) Kidush we may differentiate.
4. Question: Is there never a private prayer nor a public Kidush (thus rejecting Rava's distinction)?
5. Answer: Rava followed the majority of instances.
(g) We have three indications that the Halachah is like the elders of Pumpedisa and that even Rava retracted his position.
(a) The third cup is poured for Birkas HaMazon.
(b) The fourth cup is for completing the Hallel and the Birkas HaShir.
(c) Between the second and third cups he may drink other cups, but not between the third and fourth.
(a) Question: Shall we infer (from here, in addition to the other sources in Berachos) that Birkas HaMazon requires a cup?
(b) Answer: Our Mishnah would not serve as a proof since it could be argued that the Chazal instituted four cups and gave each a Mitzvah.
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