ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafPesachim 39
1. ... Timcha - is Ch'rain i.e. the horseradish that is used for Maror
(b) It makes no difference whether the Maror that one uses is ...
2. ... Charchevina - is tendrils that grow around the date-palm.
1. ... moist or dried.
(c) 'Mevushal' means cooked, 'Shaluk', well-cooked.
2. But if it is pickled or cooked, one is not Yotze.
(d) One may eat half a k'Zayis of one species of Maror and half a k'Zayis of
(a) One *is* Yotze with the stalks of the Moror.
(b) one is Yotze with ...
1. ... Demai, and with ...
(c) One is not Yotze the Mitzvah of Moror with Tevel (even though it is only
Tevel mi'de'Rabbanan) because it is a Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah - which
applies even by an Aveirah mi'de'Rabbanan (like by the case of Tevel in a
pot without a hole - on 35b).
2. ... Ma'aser Rishon - provided Terumas Ma'aser was removed, and with ...
3. ... Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh - provided they have been removed.
(d) There is no difference between endives that grow in a field and garden-
(a) 'Kol she'Yesh Bo S'raf' - means any kind of herb that, when one cuts it
and squeezes the location of the cut, a white milky substance will emerge.
'Kol she'Panav Machsifin' - means any kind of herb that (unlike leek, which
is a dark green) is a pale green color.
(b) When Ravina saw Rav Acha Brei de'Rava looking for Maror - he pointed out
to him that priority should not be given to the species which was the most
bitter, but rather the species which is first mentioned in the Mishnah:
namely, Chazeres, lettuce; he added that various other Amora'im also gave
precedence to Chazeres.
(c) Chazeres is called Chasa (and the reason that the prime Mitzvah is with
Chazeres - see Agados Maharsha) - as a hint that Hashem will take pity on us
like he did in Egypt (perhaps the hint is manifest here because of the Pasuk
in Koheles - "ve'Elokim Yevakesh Nirdaf", because more than anything else,
it is suffering that we suffer, that opens the gates of Divine mercy).
(d) The Egyptians compared to Maror - because, just like Maror is initially
soft, but later the stalk becomes extremely hard, so too, did the Egyptians
first hire our forefathers (they behaved sweetly towards them), but that
sweetness then turned into bitterness, and they began to enslave them.
(a) we know that Maror is a vegetable, and not ...
1. ... the gall of a fish - because Maror is compared to Matzah, which grows
from the ground, so too, must Maror grow from the ground.
(b) We know that Maror incorporates a choice of five species, and not just
one, or two - because Maror is derived from Matzah by which, there is a
choice of many kinds, so too, by Maror, is there a choice of many kinds.
2. ... the bark of the bitter Hirduf-tree - from the Hekesh to Matzah, which
teaches us that Maror must be seeds like Matzah, which the bitter Hirduf
tree is not;
3. ... a plant that is poisonous to animals called 'Harzifu' - also from the
Hekesh to Matzah; because Maror must be, like Matzah, something that can be
purchased with Ma'ser-Sheni money, which, in turn, must be edible, which
Harzifu is *not*.
(a) We initially believe Rav to be saying that the Isur of Kil'ayim does not
apply to any combination of the species which make up the ingredients of
(b) The Gemara ask that, since the Mishnah in Kil'ayim permits specifically
Chazeres and Chazeres Galin, Ulshin and Ulshei Sadeh',does this not imply
that one of one pair together with one of the other pair *does* constitute
(c) We cannot answer that the Mishnah really means to permit *all* of the
species mentioned there with each other - becaue Rav specifically pointed
out that the Tana only permits them in pairs.
(d) The Gemara initially thinks that we do not know that from those very
Mishnahs - which only permit sowing the types of 'Zera'im' (such as
legumes), but vegetables, which we believe at this stage, need more space to
nurture from the earth, will perhaps be forbidden to sow, even if one
follows the specifications laid down by the Mishnah.
(a) The above contention is disproved from the Mishnah there, which states
that it is only vegetables that are permitted in the row, and *not* Zera'im.
(b) How can we even suggest that Rav needs to inform us that the five kinds
of Maror are vegetables, and not seeds - when the Mishnah specifically
writes 've'Elu *Yerakos* she'Adam Yotze Bahen', and this text is endorsed by
a number of Amora'im?
(c) True, most of those mentioned in our Mishnah are established vegetables.
There is however, one case which we might have thought is considered a type
of 'seed'- namely Chazeres, and it is *that* which Rav is coming to permit,
by establishing it as a vegetable. Why would we have thought that Chazeres
is a seed? Because its stalk eventually hardens (as we learnt earlier in the
Sugya) like seeds tend to do; so we might have compared it to a cabbage-
stalk, which Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina gave the Din of a seed, to require
a larger row (of a Beis Rova ha'Kav) before other species may be sown beside
(a) We cannot infer from the Seifa of the Mishnah, which mentions the
stalks, that the Reisha is talking about the leaves - because the Seifa is
coming to *establish* the Reisha, not to add to it (in which case, the Seifa
is actually corroborating Rav Chisda's Chidush - namely, that it is only the
stalks of Maror that the Mishnah permits, moist or dried, but not its
Maror that has withered still retains its original taste, whereas Maror that
has dried does not.
(b) When Rebbi Meir says in the Beraisa 'Yotz'in Bahen u've'Kelach she'Lahen
Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin' - does this not imply that even the stalk is
permitted, wet or dry?
(c) No, answers the Gemara, 'Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin' refers to *Bahen*
(the leaves), and not to 'u've'Kelach she'Lahen'.
(d) The Rabbanan say that one is only Yotze with wet Maror, but not when it
is dry (the author of our Mishnah therefore, is Rebbi Meir).
(a) The Gemara thinks that Rebbi Yossi Hagelili might concede that *Maror*
of Ma'aser Sheni is permitted (even though *Matzah* is not, because whereas
Tevel of grain is d'Oraysa, Tevel of vegetables is only d'Rabanan.
(b) We cannot be referring to nowadays, when Maror is only mi'd'Rabbanan,
whereas Matzah is mi'd'Oraysa - because nowadays, Ma'aser Sheni is not eaten
in Yerushalayim. And even according to those who say that the initial
Kedushah of Yerushalayim remains, nevertheless, Rami bar Chama, who posed
the Sha'aleh, should have added the word 'nowadays' if that is what he was
(c) The Gemara concludes that there is no difference in this regard, between
Matzah and Maror (so he will not be Yotze).
(a) Chalitah means soaking in hot boiling water. The boiling water will not
allow the dough to rise. Note: The Gaonim forbade Chalitah nowadays (unless
it is for a very sick person) since we are not sure how it is done - see
Rosh, Si'man 20. Lesisah too, they forbade for similar reasons - ibid end of
(b) It is permitted to rub bran onto one's wet body. See Rosh Si'man 21, who
explains this to refer to perspiratio, (since human perspiration does not
turn something Chametz), but not to water.
(c) Chewing wheat to place on a wound is also forbidden.
(a) 'Elu Devarim she'Ein Ba'in li'Yedei Chametz: 'he'Afuy, ve'ha'Mevushal'
cannot be understood literally - because there is no reason for the bread
not to become Chametz whilst it is cooking.
(b) What the Beraisa must therefore mean is 'he'Afuy she'Bishlah'.
(c) Water dripping on to flour will not render it Chametz - provided the
drops follow each other in quick succession.
(a) A Vatika made with oil and salt is permitted (because fruit-juice
without water does not cause flour to rise; whereas a Vatika made with water
and salt is forbidden. Note: Regarding adding salt to the Matzah, see Rosh
(b) 'Kimcha de'Avishuna' - is flour that has been dried and roasted in an
(c) Even though the flour has already been baked, we are afraid that it did
not bake *fully*, and that it is therefore prone to becoming Chametz when
added to the pot.