ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafPesachim 79
(a) Rebbi Yehoshua holds that, with regard to other Kodshim, it makes no
difference whether Nitma Basar ve'Cheilev Kayam or vice-versa, the Korban is
Kasher, and one sprinkles the blood; whereas by the Pesach, it is only by
Nitma ve'Cheilev u'Basar Kayam, that the blood is sprinkled, but not vice-
(b) The Shalmei Nazir has the same Din as the Korban Pesach, though for a
different reason (because the Torah requires the Basar of the Shelamim to be
Tahor in order to perform certain Mitzvos with it).
(c) Rebbi Yehoshua adds (with regard to a Korban Pesach where the Basar
became Tamei) 've'Im Zarak Hurtzah', from which we see that, like Rav, the
eating of the Pesach is not essential to the validity of the Pesach.
(d) Rebbi Yehoshua agrees however, that 'Im Nitme'u *ha'Ba'lim* be'Meis, Lo
Yizrok, *ve'Im Zarak, Lo Hurtzah'* - because he agrees that the person must
be fit to eat the Pesach (and the same applies to a Nazir, who must begin
counting his days again, once *he* becomes Tamei).
(a) The author of our Mishnah, which permits the blood of Kodshim to be
sprinkled even if no more one k'Zayis of Basar or of Chelev remains - is
(b) Half a k'Zayis of Basar and half a k'Zayis of Cheilev do not generally
combine in this regard - since Achilas Adam and Achilas Mizbei'ach cannot
(c) They *do* combine however, by a Korban Olah, since they are both Achilas
(d) When the Beraisa says 'u've'Minchah, Af al Pi she'Kulah Kayemes, Lo
Yizrok' - it is referring to the Minchas Nesachim i.e. a Minchah that is
brought together with a regular animal. We may otherwise have thought that
if the blood of the Korban with which it came became Tamei completely, it
may nevertheless be sprinkled in account of the Minchah that remains, since
it is as if part of the Minchah remained intact.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Hiktir *ha'Chelev* le'Rei'ach Nicho'ach la'Hashem" - 'Cheilev, Af
al Pi she'Ein Basar'.
(b) We know from the Beraisa that the lobe of the liver and the two kidneys
have the same Din as the Chelev in this regard - because the Tana writes
'u've'Minchah Af al Pi she'Kulah Kayemes, Lo Yizrok', implying that if some
of the actual *animal* remains (even if it is only he lobe of the liver or
the two kidneys), one may go ahead and sprinkle the blood.
2. ... "ve'Hiktir ha'Chelev *le'Rei'ach Nicho'ach* la'Hashem" - that even if
just the lobe of the liver or the two kidneys remain intact, one also
sprinkles the blood.
(c) Had the Torah written "le'Rei'ach Nicho'ach", and not "ha'Cheilev" - we
would have thought that one may sprinkle the blood on anything that goes on
the Mizbei'ach as a Rei'ach Nicho'ach, even the Minchah. Therefore the Torah
added "ha'Cheilev", to confine the sprinkling of the blood to when some of
the *Korban* remains, but not just the *Minchah*.
(a) The Pesach is brought be'Tuma'h even though the majority of the
community are Tahor - when the *Kohanim* are Tamei.
(b) When the majority of the community (or the Kohanim) are Tamei - the
remainder of the community may also bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah, in order not
to divide the Pesach (which symbolizes the unity of K'lal Yisrael) into two
(c) The Pesach is brought be'Tum'ah even if the entire community (including
the Kohanim) are Tahor - when the K'lei Shares are Tamei.
(a) In the previous case, it is only if the knives (the K'lei Shares) became
Tamei through a *Tamei Mes* that the Teme'im are also permitted to bring the
Pesach, since that would render all who touched them Tamei (because of the
principle 'Cherev, Harei Hu ke'Chalal').
(b) But if they became Tamei through a *Sheretz*, it is better *only* that
the Tehorim bring the Pesach, and not the Teme'ei Mes, since Tum'as Sheretz
does not carry with it a Chiyuv Kares (only a La'v), like Tum'as Mes does.
(c) Were Rav Chisda and Rav Yitzchak to hold Tum'ah Hutrah be'Tzibur, then,
once a Pesach becomes 'Ba be'Tum'ah', everyone may participate without any
restrictions. Consequently, seeing as they do everything possible to
minimize the Tum'ah, they must hold 'Tum'ah Dechuyah be'Tzibur'.
(d) Rava learns from the Pasuk "ve'ha'Basar Asher Yiga be'Chol Tamei, Lo
Ye'achel, ba'Eish Yisaref. ve'ha'Basar, Kol Tahor Yochal Basar" - whenever
"ve'ha'Basar, Asher Yiga be'Chol Tamei" does *not* apply, "Kol Tahor Yochal
Basar" *does*, and wherever the former *does* apply, the latter does *not*.
Consequently, when the K'lei Shares (and subsequently, the Basar) are Tamei,
there is no prohibition on Teme'im to bring the Pesach.
(a) 'Mechtzah Al Mechtzah ke'Rov means in practical terms - that both the
Tehorim and the Teme'im must bring the Pesach independently.
(b) The Tehorim bring the Pesach independently - because 'Mechtzah ke'Rov',
and Rov Tehorim do not bring a Pesach be'Tum'ah. And the Teme'im do not
bring the Pesach Sheni - because Mechtzah ke'Rov, and Rov Teme'im bring
Pesach Rishon, and not Pesach Sheni.
(c) Rav Kahana holds 'Mechtzah Al Mechtzah Einah ke'Rov'. The Tehorim bring
the Pesach be'Taharah; the Teme'im either bring the Pesach Sheni, or do not
bring it at all.
(a) Our Mishnah states that if the *majority* of the community is Tamei,
they bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah, even the Tehorim - whereas if only *half*
are Tamei, they do not all bring it be'Tum'ah, but the Teme'im be'Tum'ah,
and the Tehorim, be'Taharah (just like Rav holds).
(b) The Gemara proves this answer from the Seifa, which states 'Nitma
*Miy'ut* ha'Kahal, Tehorin Osin es ha'Rishon, u'*Temei'in Osin es
ha'Sheini'* - implying that by Mechtzah Al Mechtzah, they both bring, the
one *be'Tum'ah*, the other, be'Taharah.
(c) According to the first Lashon of Rav Kahana (which appears to give
Mechtzah al Mechtzah the same Din as Miy'ut Teme'im), the Tana mentions
specifically 'Miy'ut Teme'im' (not to imply that Mechtzah Al Mechtzah is any
different, but) since the Reisha speaks about 'Nitma Rubo', it is natural to
balance this in the Seifa with 'Nitma Miy'uto'.
(a) Rav and the second Lashon of Rav Kahana establish the Beraisa 'Tehorin
Osin es ha'Rishon, u'Teme'in es ha'Sheini', by 'Mechtzah Teme'in u'Mechtzah
Tehorin, ve'Nashim Mashlimos la'Teme'in' - and this Tana holds Nashim
ba'Rishon, Reshus. Consequently, if one were to deduct the women from the
majority of Teme'im, they would be in the minority, and a minority of
Teme'im bring the Pesach Sheni.
(b) The Beraisa that conforms with the second Lashon of Rav Kahana states
'Tehorin Osin es ha'Rishon, u'Teme'in Ein Osin Lo es ha'Rishon ve'Lo es
ha'Sheini'. Rav establishes the Beraisa by 'Mechtzah Teme'in u'Mechtzah
Tehorin, ve'Nashim Odfos al ha'Tehor'in' (i.e. to make them the majority) -
and this Tana holds 'Nashim ba'Rishon Chov' (as a result of which the
Teme'im cannot bring the Rishon, since the minority of Teme'im do not bring
the Pesach Rishon); 'u'va'Sheni Reshus' (which means that the Teme'im are a
majority on Pesach Sheni, and the majority Teme'im do not bring Pesach
(c) Rav Kahana in the first Lashon establishes the Beraisa by 'Mechtzah Al
Mechtzah, ve'Nashim Mashlimos la'Tehorim'; and this Tana holds 'Nashim
ba'Rishon Chov' (thereby absolving the Teme'im from bringing the Pesach
Rishon, since Mechtzah Al Mechtzah do not bring, according to him);
'u'va'Sheni Reshus' (making a Rov Teme'im, and Rov Teme'im do not bring
(a) Rebbi Elazar ben Masya says that since by Mechtzah Al Mechtzah, the
Tehorim bring the Pesach independently, a majority of only one is not
sufficient to alter this (and at least a majority of two will be required
before the Tehorim may bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah). He learns this from the
Pasuk "*Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach es ha'Pasach be'Achad* She'arecha" - from the
juxtaposition of "be'Achad" to the first half of the Pasuk (as if the Torah
had written "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach es ha'Pasach be'Echad" - meaning that one
cannot Shecht the Pesach in a way that one person causes any change).
(b) Rebbi Shimon says that one tribe is called a Kahal, and that therefore,
if one tribe is Tamei, they may bring the Pesach on Pesach Rishon.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah goes even further, and says that, if one tribe is Tamei,
it is as if half the Tzibur were Tamei, and all the tribes bring the Pesach